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APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources

Provide guidance on APA format style based on the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Standard Format

Standalone audiovisual media








Director, D. D. (Director).

Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer).

Host, H. H. (Host).

Artist, A. A.

Uploader, U. U.





(year, Month date).

Title of work: Use sentence case [Work type/format].


Production Company.



Museum Name, Museum Location.


Department Name, University Name.



Audiovisual media that is part of a great whole








Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director).

Host, H. H. (Host)

Producer, P. P. (Producer).

Composer, C. C.

Artist, A. A.



(year, Month date).

Title of episode (Season No., Episode No.) [Description].

Title of song [Description].

In P. P. Producer (Executive Producer), Title of TV series.  Production Company.


In Title of podcast.  Production Company.


On Title of album.  Label.



Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed).

Formatting Rules

  • Includes content that may have visual and audio components, auido only, or visual only
  • Formatting varies whether stand alone or part of a great whole
  • Author is determined by media type (see p. 341 of APA Manual 7th edition)
  • Work is described using square brackets following the title

Various Examples

Motion Picture Film

Darabont, F. (Director).  (1994).  The Shawshank redemption [DVD].  Warner Bros. Pictures.

Streaming film

Johnson, S. (Director).  (2018).  To all the boys I’ve loved before [Video file].  Overbrook Entertainment and Awesome Films.

TV Series Herskovitz, M., Holzman, W., & Zwick, E. (Executive producers).  (1994-1995).  My so-called life.  [TV series].  The Bedford Falls company; ABC Productions.

Single episode from a television series

Daniels, G., Kaling, M., Gervais, R., Merchant, S., (Writers), & Gordon, B. (Director).  (2006).  The injury (Season 2, Episode 12) [Television series episode].  In G. Daniels (Executive producer), The office.  National Broadcasting Company.

Video blog/Streaming video (i.e. YouTube)

TED.  (2018, May 2).  How language shapes the way we think: Lera Boroditsky [Video file].  YouTube.

Ted Talk (TED website)

Huang, C. (2018, October).  Chieh Huang: Confessions of a recovering micromanager [Video file].  TED Conferences.


Vedantam, S. (Host).  (2015-present).  Hidden Brain [Audio podcast].  NPR.

Podcast Episode Welsh, E. & Allmann Updyke, E. (Hosts).  (2019, November 26).  Lead poisoning: Heavy metal episode (No. 38) [Audio podcast episode].  In This Podcast Will Kill You.  Exactly Right.

Online Image

Griffiths, L. (2018).  Paul Pogba of France kisses the World Cup trophy following the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia Final between France and Croatia at Luzhniki Stadium on July 15, 2018 in Moscow, Russia [Photograph].  Retrieved from

Print Photograph

Nadel, L.  (1951).  Poor housing [Photograph].  Los Angeles, CA: Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles

Music Album Lewis, J.  (2019).  On the line [Album].  Warner Bros. Records.
Single song Lizzo.  (2016).  Good as hell [Song].  On Coconut oil.  Nice Life Recording Company; Atlantic Records.
Presentation slides or lecture notes

Owl Purdue Writing Lab.  (n.d.).  APA Formatting and Style Guide [PowerPoint slides].  Purdue Online Writing Lab.