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This is an online edition of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, or a dictionary of "Old English". The dictionary records the state of the English language as it was used between ca. 700-1100 AD by the Anglo-Saxon inhabitans of the British Isles.
This project is based on a digital edition of An Anglo-Saxon dictionary, based on the manuscript collections of the late Joseph Bosworth (the so called Main Volume, first edition 1898) and its Supplement (first edition 1921), edited by Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller, today the largest complete dictionary of Old English (one day to be hopefully supplanted by the DOE). Alistair Campbell's "enlarged addenda and corrigenda" from 1972 are not public domain and are therefore not part of the online dictionary.
Please see the front & back matter of the paper dictionary for further information, prefaces and lists of references & contractions.
The digitization project was initiated by Sean Crist in 2001 as a part of his Germanic Lexicon Project and many individuals and institutions have contributed to this project. Check out the original GLP webpage and the old Bosworth-Toller offline application webpage (to be updated). Currently the project is hosted by the Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague.
In 2010, the data from the GLP were converted to create the current site. Care was taken to preserve the typography of the original dictionary, but also provide a modern, user friendly interface for contemporary users.
In 2013, the entries were structurally re-tagged and the original typography was abandoned, though the immediate access to the scans of the paper dictionary was preserved.
Aims & Status
Our aim is to reach beyond a simple digital edition and create an online environment dedicated to all interested in Old English and Anglo-Saxon culture. Feel free to join in the editing of the Dictionary, commenting on its numerous entries or participating in the discussions at our forums.
We hope that by drawing the attention of the community of Anglo-Saxonists to our site and joining our resources, we may create a more useful tool for everybody. The most immediate project to draw on the corrected and tagged data of the Dictionary is a Morphological Analyzer of Old English (currently under development).
We are grateful for the generous support of the Charles University Grant Agency and for the free hosting at the Faculty of Arts at Charles University in Prague. The site is currently maintained and developed by Ondrej Tichy et al. at the Department of English Language and ELT Methodology, Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic).
The project has a considerable history of its own: it began life and continues as the Academy's part of a Europe-wide scheme, first proposed in Britain in 1913 and subsequently established under the auspices of the International Union of Academies, to create a successor to the previous standard dictionary of medieval Latin, the Glossarium ... mediae et infimae Latinitatis, first compiled in the seventeenth century by the French scholar, Du Cange (Charles du Fresne). There have been a number of similar national projects across Europe under the same overall scheme, each responsible for preparing a dictionary of medieval Latin from their particular national sources; some of these, like the DMLBS, are ongoing, some have reached completion, and others ceased work before reaching completion.
R. Ashdowne (2010) ‘“ut Latine minus vulgariter magis loquamur”: the making of the Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources’, in C. Stray (ed.), Classical Dictionaries, past, present and future (Duckworth), 195–222.
C. White (2002) ‘Medieval senses of Classical words’, Peritia 16, 131–141.
M. Wheeler (1970) ‘The making of a dictionary’, in id., The British Academy, 1949–1968 (British Academy), 98–103.
The scope and strategy of the project are orientated with respect to the European Latin dictionary scheme (referred to above) of the Union académique internationale; the Royal Irish Academy Council's definition of the domain of DMLCS (1980) and endorsement (in 1993 and 2001 respectively) of its subsequent medium-term and longer-term development plans; and on-going agreements with the British Academy (1990) and Brepols Publishers (1992, 1995 and 2005). The master, working copy of the project's database has historically been located at QUB; it is accessed interactively from the DMLCS office in Dublin.
Apart from the production of the first volume of the Dictionary and the completion of a Supplement thereto, achievements to date have included the publication under the project's auspices of five volumes in a DMLCS Ancillary Series, and of a full-text Archive of Celtic-Latin Literature (first in a preliminary CD-rom edition and subsequently in a developed and much expanded online version), as well as the compilation of a lemmatized Celtic-Latin Word-List on the WorldWideWeb and a range of interpretative publications. The project also organizes and contributes to the editing of a Scriptores Celtigenae series of Medieval Latin texts, published by Brepols, of which seven volumes have so far appeared. In addition, with funding from PRTLI (Cycle 4), DMLCS has constructed and published a multilevel hypertext stack on St Patrick's Confessio as an online resource for investigating the Saint's own writings.
With the Lexicography of the Bran on the Net, the Accademia della Crusca publishes on the web the content of the five editions of the Academic Vocabulary.
The computerization work, already carried out for the first edition, has been extended to the next three (1623, 1691, 1729-1738), so as to allow its interrogation in a systematic and rapid way, with advanced searches that allow you to select specific sections of each edition of the Vocabulary (definitions, examples, Greek and Latin words, forestry, phrases, proverbs, words of living use, sources); but also to constantly compare the different editions. It will thus be possible to precisely follow the evolutionary stages of the lexicographical work of academics and together the changes in Italian they have recorded over the centuries.
The project also includes a database for images of the five editions: the approximately 20,000 total pages can be "browsed" on the net as real virtual volumes, but you can also access the various terms with a special search engine that will automatically identify the page relating to the searched word, in a specific edition or in all, thus allowing once again a fruitful comparison to grasp the evolution of the individual items from the first (1612) to the last edition (1863-1923).
Treasure of the Italian Language of Origins.
The first historical dictionary of ancient Italian which is born directly on the net
founded by Pietro G. Beltrami.
The Italian Vocabulary Opera is the CNR Institute which has the task of developing the Italian Historical Vocabulary. It is based in Florence at the Accademia della Crusca.
Currently the OVI elaborates and publishes online the Treasure of the Italian Language of Origins (TLIO), which is the ancient part of the Italian Historical Vocabulary, and the textual Corpus of Ancient Italian. It also produces and makes advanced lexicographic software available to scholars.
It has collaborative relationships with Italian and foreign universities and academies, research centers, public and private bodies and publishing houses for research and training activities on the Italian language and texts.
“Il GLOSSARIO del Due-Trecento è diventato nel corso degli anni un punto di riferimento importante del sito, ed è giunto con questa alla quinta edizione, notevolmente accresciuta. Tre sono le fasi che chiaramente lo caratterizzano e che sono facilmente individuabili:
► fase della semplice trascrizione delle parole in Italiano moderno;
► fase della citazione degli autori da cui quelle parole sono tratte;
► fase della citazione estesa dell’opera, del verso e dell’autore.
Quest’ultima versione, contiene circa 3000 lemmi, molti dei quali appartengono alla terza fase del lavoro. È certamente un utile ed agile strumento di lavoro nelle mani di quanti affrontano la lettura talvolta ostica della lingua del Basso Medioevo. Non mancheranno nei prossimi anni pubblicazioni più …”
La présente ressource est produite et diffusée par l’ATILF à des fins de consultation pour l’enseignement et la recherche, à l’exclusion de toute exploitation commerciale. La citation d’un extrait de la ressource au sein d’une publication scientifique est autorisée sous condition de porter la mention suivante :
DMF : Dictionnaire du Moyen Français, version 2015 (DMF 2015). ATILF - CNRS & Université de Lorraine. Site internet : http://www.atilf.fr/dmf.
This resource is produced and distributed by ATILF for educational and research consultation purposes, without any commercial use. The citation of an extract from the resource in a scientific publication is authorized provided that the following mention is made:
DMF: Dictionary of Middle French, version 2015 (DMF 2015). ATILF - CNRS & University of Lorraine. Website: http://www.atilf.fr/dmf.
The Etymological Dictionary of Old French (DEAF) lays the scientific foundations, both philological and linguistic, of Old French. It embraces the period from 842 until the middle of the 14th century. The articles are classified in alphabetical order and contain the words grouped by etymological families. The work is done on the basis of strict philological principles (Ad fontes!). To find out more, please read our short presentation. The dictionary is in principle based on all the literature written in Old French as listed in the Bibliographic Complement. The publication takes place online in the electronic DEAF, as well as in printed form in deliveries of 192 columns. We leave to others the appreciation of the work accomplished and will content ourselves here with citing a few exemplary results which illustrate the encyclopedic value of the work.
Per una traduzione italiana di questa pagina, si veda l'introduzione italiana.
ItalNet is an international consortium founded in 1995 whose mission is to create scholarly Internet resources of literary and historical materials relating to Italian studies. The founding member institutions are the Centro di studi Opera del Vocabolario Italiano, a research center of the Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche (CNR), Florence, Italy; the ARTFL Project, Department of Romance Languages, University of Chicago; The William and Katherine Devers Program in Dante Studies, University of Notre Dame; and the Department of Italian Studies, University of Reading. Additional ItalNet collaborative projects may be accessed from the ItalNet Projects Page.
SPANISH, CATALAN, and PORTUGUESE DIGITAL DICTIONARIES
Concise, readable explanations of the technical terms most frequently encountered in manuscript studies make this portable volume an essential resource for students, scholars, and readers who wish a deeper understanding and enjoyment of illuminated manuscripts and medieval book production.
Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus by J. F. Niermeyer; C. van de Kieft; J. W. J. Burgers; KieftAlma MMS ID: 991013677789703731
Niermeyers Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus is a highly practical lexicon, providing researchers, teaching staff and students in the field of Medieval History with concise, essential information.This new edition is still the compendious lexicon for rapid information envisaged by Niermeyer, but current entries and definitions have been revised and new entries have been added. Furthermore, the dictionary is now enhanced with German definitions and therefore provides French, English and German translations for every entry of a Medieval Latin concept. All entries are contextualized with relevant text passages. In view of the new entries and additional German definitions, the new edition is bound into two durable hardback volumes. The Niermeyer Lexicon Minus has proved to be invaluable to medievalists for almost 50 years and is an indispensable working tool for academic libraries.The revised Lexicon is published simultaneously by Brill, Leiden and Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft (WBG), Darmstadt (WBG only distributes to its members).
A Dictionary of Medieval Terms and Phrases by Christopher Corèdon; Ann WilliamsAlma MMS ID: 991016152939703731
eBook is available.
An interest in the middle ages often brings the non-specialist reader up short against a word or term which is not understood or only imperfectly understood. This dictionary is intended to put an end to all that - though such a claim is inevitably rash. However, it has been designed in the hope that it will be of real help to non-academic readers, and in some cases maybe even to specialists. The dictionary contains some 3,400 terms as headwords, ranging from the legal and ecclesiastic to the more prosaic words of daily life. Latin was the language of the church, law and government, and many Latin terms illustrated here are frequently found in modern books of history of the period; similarly, the precise meaning of Old English and Middle English terms may elude today's reader: this dictionary endeavours to provide clarity. In addition to definition, etymologies of many words are given, in the belief that knowing the origin and evolution of a word gives a better understanding. There are also examples of medieval terms and phrases still in use today, a further aid to clarifying meaning. CHRISTOPHER COREDON has also compiled the Dictionary of Cybernyms. Dr ANN WILLIAMS, historical consultant on the project, was until her retirement Senior Lecturer in medieval history at the Polytechnic of North London.
A Guide to Editing Middle English by Vincent McCarren (Editor); Douglas Moffat (Editor)Alma MMS ID: 991024058949703731
Those who undertake a scholarly edition of a Middle English text have until now had no general guide for their work. All who study English literary works must rely on editions at some stage, and this volume will provide them with many perspectives on the formation of these necessary scholarly tools. Editors of texts in other medieval languages and indeed all those engaged with questions of scholarly editing--whether practical, historical, or theoretical--will also find important contributions in this volume. A Guide to Editing Middle English collects nineteen essays and three appendices written by leading text editors in Middle English. A number of essays deal primarily with theoretical questions, while others offer assessments of historical developments in editing, especially in regard to the most well-known Middle English works. Most of the essays deal with practical matters: how to use a computer in preparing and presenting an edition; how to form and arrange the standard parts of an edition; and how to handle problems presented by texts in areas such as science, astrology, and cooking. The three appendices provide bibliographical references to dictionaries, facsimiles, and manuscript description. Contributors, in addition to the editors, are Peter Baker, Richard Beadle, Norman Blake, Helen Cooper, A. S. G. Edwards, Jennifer Fellows, David C. Greetham, Mary Hamel, Constance Heiatt, Nicholas Jacobs, Geroge Keiser, Peter J. Lucas, Maldwyn Mills, Linne Mooney, and Peter Robinson. The many and varied perspectives of this volume will make it of interest to readers of Middle English texts, those involved in textual scholarship, and those interested in editing in general. It occupies a unique place in the field of Middle English studies and will likely remain a standard reference tool for a long time. Vincent McCarren is a Research Associate with the Middle English Dictionary at the University of Michigan. Douglas Moffat, formerly with the Middle English Dictionary, is a Development Officer with the University of Michigan.
Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources by R. E. Latham (Editor)This dictionary is an indispensable guide to the study of the Latin Middle Ages. It records the continuing usage of classical and late Latin in this period (6th-16th centuries), but it presents most fully the medieval developments of the language, drawing on a rich variety of printed andmanuscript sources. Many new formations from other languages are revealed--some of the borrowings recorded in Latin centuries before their appearance in written vernacular sources. Due to the high number of entries for P, this letter will be spread over four fascicules.