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The Art and Science of Great Teaching: Celebrating the Legacy of William Vennard: Research Materials

A one-day symposium made possible by a USC Libraries Dean’s Challenge Grant and cosponsored by the Thornton School of Music.

Commentary

Students in Lynn Helding's MPVA 542: Vocal Pedagogy Teaching Practicum course provided an initial inventory of Vennard's research materials in Spring 2018; this information will eventually be migrated to our standard archival description platform.

Compiled by Michael Dawson

1. Folder – Title “Douglas Stanley”

  1. Photocopied pages from a book
    1. Images and text on functions of the tongue as it relates to singing
  2. Note cards
    1. Labeled
      1. Stanley (some located within the paper)
        1. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17,18, 21, 22, 23 15, 16, 20, 21, 33
  3. Typed notes on paper
    1. 1st page references three of Stanley’s books (a critical review)
      1. 1929 (The Science of Voice)
      2. 1933 (The Voice, It’s Production and Reproduction)
      3. 1957 (Your Voice: Applied Science of Vocal Art)
    2. Pages with Vennard (possibly) commenting on Stanley’s and others work
      1. Also references people who disagree with his (Vennard’s) work, inc. Frank E. Miller
    3. Pencil diagram drawing of tongue
  4. Graph paper with numbers pertaining to tongue

2. Envelope – Title “Swell Tones” from Brodt Music Company, Charlotte, North Carolina

  1. Sonograms
    1. Vennard II Intrinsic Swelltones
    2. 5. Vennard X Swelltones
      1. 236. Vx43 G2 <>
      2. 237. VX44 C2 <>
    3. 3. Vennard X Swelltones
      1. 225. VX40 C4
      2. 227. Break
      3. 228. VX41 G3 <>
    4. 4. Vennard X Swelltones
      1. 233. VX42 C3 <>
    5. 2. Vennard X Swelltones
      1. VX 39 C4 <>
    6. Vennard X Swelltones 38 – 44
      1. Vennard Extrinsic, April 18, 1968
        1. VX 38 G4 Swelltone
    7. 6. Vennard IV Swelltones
      1. VIN 44, C3 <> HD – CH – HD (probably means head to chest to head with a crescendo and diminuendo)
      2. VIN 45 G2 <> CH “Both muscles inversely correlated with intensity"
    8. 5. Vennard IV Swelltones
      1. VIN 44 C3 <> HD – CH – HD
    9. 4. Vennard IV Swelltones
      1. VIN 42 C#4 <> HD – CH – HD
      2. 282. VIN 43 G3 <> HD – CH – HD
    10. 2. Vennard IV Inter Swelltones
      1. VIN 41 C4 <> HD – CH – HD with a break
    11. Vennard IV Swelltones, Interarytenoid, 4 – 18 – 68, 39 – 45
      1. VIN 39 C4 <> FAL (Falesetto)
      2. 270. VIN 40  G4 <> FAL – HARD FAL – FAL
    12. Vennard IV Intrinsic Swelltones 82, Cricothyroid unreliable
      1. VIN 82 C4 <> HD – CH – HD
    13. Vennard I, Swelltones
    14. 2. Vennard II, Swelltones

3. Envelope “Editing Procedures” – sent to William + Leona Vennard address

  1. Typed pages discussing editing procedure pgs
    1. P1. Written Transcription
      1. Looking for a more efficient way to transcribe the tapes in less time than listening to them
    2. Procedure
      1. Using earphones, piano, using the trigger
    3. P2. Continuation of editing procedure
      1. Discusses placement, freedom and intensity
    4. P4
      1. "Evaluations or interpretations of recording should be included”
      2. “international phonetic alphabet should be used as much as possible
    5. P5
      1. Discusses (Yawn Sigh YS)
        1. Portamento
        2. Shout
        3. Circular YS
        4. Snarl, Whine, Groan
      2. Detailed exercises with IPA
    6. P6
      1. Editing procedures 6
        1. E. Desiderata
          1. Before and after samples of voice
    7. P7
      1. II. Three hour Condensation
        1. More information about evaluation
    8. P9
      1. Editing procedure 8A
        1. Descriptions of how to set up the machine.
    9. P10
      1. How to copy tapes…..
    10. P14
      1. Splicing procedure
    11. P16
      1. Editing procedure 15

4. Envelope – EXTRINSIC

  1. Letter made out to Dr. Hirano:
    1. P1. Thyrohyoid
      1. “Thyrohyoid involved in stabilizing larynx”
      2. “Transition from head to falsetto is marked by activity in the thyrohyoid.
    2. P2
      1. Discusses various types of singing at its effect on the Thyrohyoid.
    3. P3
      1. Digastric, anterior belly
    4. P4
      1. Discusses digastric effort with vowels and various types of tone, nasal and crescendo/dim
    5. P5
      1. Sternohyoid
  2. Article – “Demonstration, in man, of the existence in the recurrent nerve of motor action potentials synchronous with the vibrations of the vocal folds” by Moulonguet, Laget and Husson
    1. Article discusses a number of experiments using electrical pulses to stimulate muscles. When amplitude was 435 the larynx produced A3.
    2. Hand written notes on the back from Bernard Regier
    3. Harvey Ruigel

5. Folder – Inside –

  1. 3 pages of typed up notes title – NADOLENCZNY +
  2. German book/paper Untersuchungen Uber Den Kunstgesang by Dr. Max Nadoleczny

6. Folder (labeled Boosey and Hawkes Newsletter)

  1. Contains
    1. Bulletin “Physiology in Singing with Power”x2
    2. “The 1957 Summer Works” at Texas Christian University Bulletin
    3. French article “Acoustique Physiologique”
    4. French article “Donnees theoriques et experimentales nouvelles concernant la physiologie phonatoire du larynx humain”
    5. French article “Quelques resultats nouveaux concernant la physiologie phonatoire chez l’Homme.
    6. French article from the Journal Radiologie et d’Electrologie entitled “Tomographie et Phonation”
    7. French book/magazine “Extrait des ANNALES DES TELECOMMUNICATIONS tome 8, no.2 = Fevrier 1953 “Etude Experimentale Des Conditionnements Acoustiques, Physiologiques et Psychophysiologiques de L’Esthetique Musicale
    8. French bulletin with dates
    9. Article from “association Francaise pour l’etude de la Phonation et du Langage”
    10. Article “The Classification of Human Voices by Raoul Husson”
    11. French Bulletin “Mesure in situ de l’excitabilite des cordes vocales humaines. Observations physiologiques concomitante
    12. Article in LA NATURE  - “Comment se forment les voyelles”
    13. French Bulletin “Modifications phonatoires d;origine auditive et applications physiologiques et cliniques by Raul Husson”
    14. Small book in French from the Universite de Paris – “La Reponse de l’effecteur Laryngien aux Impulsions Neuro-Endocrino- Vegetatives dans le chant”
    15. French Bulletin “La vibration des cordes voacles (de l’homme) sans courant d’air et les roles d’une pression sous-glottique eventuelle” by Raoul Husson
    16. French Bulletin – “Acoustique Physiologique “ by Raoul Husson and Leonid Pimonow
    17. French Bulletin “Donnees experimentales concernant les deux premiers registres de la voix humanie” by Raoul Husson
    18. French article “ Physiologie – Theorie de la vibration des cordes vocales by Raoul Husson presente by M. Jean Cabannes.
    19. French article “ Acoustique Physiologique – Analyse generale de la structure acoustique des sons du langage par superposition de composantes periodiques et de composantes aleatoires. Notes by Raoul Husson and Remi Saumont presented by M. Jean Cabannes.
    20. French article Physiologie – “Physiologie de la vibration des cordes vocales” by Raoul Husson, presented by M. Andre Mayer
    21. French bulletin “la mesure de l’excitabilite recurrentielle chez l’homme et ses applications physiologiques et cliniques by Raoul Husson
    22. French bulletin “la commande et la regulation centrales de l’activite recurrentielle pendant la phonation”
    23. French article in Revue de larynholohie: “L’electromyographie des cordes vocales du chien
    24. French Article – Centre International de Dialectologie Generale Pres L’Universite Catholique de Louvain “ ORBIS”
    25. French Bulletin Physiologie – “Genese physiologique de la sensation de dissonance et reduction de l’esthetique musicale a la psycho-physiologie du nerf auditif et de ses differents relais encephaliques. By Raoul Husson
    26. French Bulletin – “reproduction experimentale de la vibration des cordes vocales par stimulation du nerf recurrent du chien” by Paul Laget
    27. French Bulletin “Etude experimentale, au cours de la phonation, des organs phonateurs en tant que recepteurs interoceptifs et proprioceptifs et des regulations etfferentes” by Raoul Hussen
    28. French Bulletin _ “Etude electromyographique des cordes vocales cheq l’Homme by G. Portmann, R. Humbert, P. Laget et R. Husson
    29. French Bulletin “ Importance Phonatoire Majeure, Dans le Chant, Des Afferences non specifiques somatiques et Vegetatives et Des Mecanismes Inhibiteurs et Facilitateurs reticules by Raoul Husson
    30. Nature Journal  March 1958
    31. Typed Notes which are translations of French papers

7. Envelope “made to University of Southern California” big red label.

  1. Notepad
    1. Typed up notes on Palatopharyngeus
    2. Detailed written notes with lots of numbers
    3. Notes – looking at levator muscle and how active it is when singing certain things.
    4. Typed notes on levator muscles along with experiments and results X2
    5. Notes written to Dr. Hirano
    6. Photocopied written transcription of a tape -  notes on a tenor Marle Mwore full lesson notes
  2. Folder
    1. Editing Procedure (same as the more detailed one above)
  3. Envelope (battered and torn) with RESEARCH  written on the front
    1. Contains letter to Bill from Department of Otolaryngology Kurume Univ. School of Medicine Kurume-shi, Kyushu, Japan –
      1. Mentions Dr. Yoshio Sunaga, John Ohala, Husler
    2. Typed notes “Registration in the Soprano Voice – an Electromyographic Study Part II”
    3. Letter to Dr. Hirano from Vennard? (address is in the top)
      1. Mentioned – Dr. Fritzell
    4. Letter from University of Michigan by Bjorn Fritzell , June 20, 1968
      1. Mentions Vennards research project with Dr. Hirano
    5. Letter to Dr. Bjorn Fritzell at University of Michigan, June 13, 1968
    6. Letter to Minoru in Rochester, June 29,  1969    
      1. They discuss recent research findings on levator and Palatopharyngeous
    7. Letter from Minoru at Kurume University – Department of Otolaryngology School of Medicine discussing research and experiments.
    8. Letter from Minoru to Bill (William?) discussing their collaborations
    9. Letter to Minoru
      1. Opens with mentioning the TV coverage of the Moon walk
      2. Vennard helps Minoru with his English
    10. Letter to “bill” (Vennard) from Minoru at Kurume University.
    11. The Paper Vennard and Minoru collaborated on “Regulation of Register, pitch and intensity of voice” and electromyographic investigation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles of Minoru Hirano, William Vennard and John Ohala
    12. Table of muscles investigated from Kurume University
    13. Letter to Dr. Hirano from Vennard discussing research on extrinsic muscles
    14. Letter to Dr. Minoru from Vennard
    15. Letter to Bjorn Fritzell in Sweden about his publication “The Velopharngeal Muscles in Speech” from Vennard
    16. Letter to Minoru from Vennard with corrections to Minoru’s papers
    17. Collection of Tables on voices of Moore and Vennard Swell tones
    18. Envelope (unable to get the paper out)
    19. Letter to Vennard from Justus P. Glaser
    20. Letter from Minoru Hirano to Vennard (Aug 12 1968)about why he cannot attend something.
    21. Letter from Minoru Hirano (August 5th 1968) about aerodynamic recordings of Moore and Robbins
    22. Letter from Minoru Hirano to Vennard  (July 15 1968)
    23. Sonograph about palatepharygenous
    24. Letter from Minoru Hirano to Vennard July 2, 1968
    25. Letter from Minoru Hirano to Vennard June 28 1968
    26. Letter from Minoru Hirano to Vennard July 9 1968
    27. Letter to Dr. Hirano from Vennard
    28. Tables of Vennard singing  + muscle usage.
    29. Notes on Swelltones Extrinisic Thyrohyoid, Sternohyoid and Digastric 5 pages.
    30. Table on Thyrohyoid Scales with different positions (6 pages)
    31. Notes on Varieties of Singing Technique
    32. Tables on voices of Vennard and Moore with extensive notes regarding muscle usage

Compiled by Rina Ritivoiu

Folder (Written “Stanley”)

  1. Typewritten
    1. The ruined voice by tension on the neck
    2. Quotes from a book
    3. Description of a good quality of singing
    4. Collected quotations of vocal organs and their relations to singing
  2. Photocopy
    1. Book “ The Science of Voice”
  3. Typewritten
    1. Stanley - 7a-o. manipulation
    2. Stanley - 8a-b. The Exercise that Wilcox Elaborated
    3. Stanley - 9a-c. Breathing
    4. Stanley - 10a-c. The Attack
    5. Stanley - 11a-b. Vibrato
    6. Stanley - 12a. Mention of Specific Pitches with reference to registration
    7. Stanley - 13a-b. Vowels (Women’s voice)
    8. Stanley - 14. Voice Classification
    9. Stanley - 1945 1-7. S’45 Collections on Falsetto, Tongue, Thyroid Manipulation, and the Registration

Folder (Written “TIFFANY”)

  1. Journal article
    1. Reprinted from the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research
    2. Title “Intelligibility of Slow-Played Speech” by William R. Tiffany and Delmond N. Bennett
  2. Typewritten
    1. From William R. Tiffany. Letterhead University of Washington Department of Speech Seattle 5 September 9, 1964
      1. Addressing vowels and the problem of intelligibility in singing
  3. Article
    1. Title “Slurvian Translation as a Speech Research Tool” by William R. Tiffany
  4. Journal article
    1. Reprinted from the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research
    2. Title “ The Effects of Group Pressure On Judgments of Speech Sounds” by Gerald R. Miller and William R. Tiffany
  5. Article
    1. Title “Sound Mindedness: Studies in the Measurement Of “Phonetic Ability”” by William R. Tiffany
  6. Typewritten
    1. To William R. Tiffany September 4, 1964
      1. Requesting some documentation for the schwa vowel analyzed electronically because it applies to singing pedagogy.
      2. The backside of the same paper: memo from William Bernard to Executive Committee and Policy Board. Subject New York Chapter National Association of Teachers of Singing May 2, 1964
        1. Marilyn Horne’s recital
        2. Misunderstanding, needing to vote, disapproval of publication that could potentially damage the general morale
        3. 33 member resignation 
  7. Photocopy
    1.  The Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, Volume 2, No. 4. December 1959
      1. “Nonrandom SOuncese of Variation in Vowel Quality” by William R. Tiffany

Envelope (Written “Long Scales”, Airmail, From University of California Phonetics Laboratory to Professor William Vennard Aug 13, 68)

  1. Sonograms
    1. 208- Vin 17 3 8ve D E3  C SCALES C5-C2
    2. 211- Vin 19 C#5-C#2
    3. 212-C#2
    4. 213-C#4, C#3, C#2
    5. 214-VIN21 D5-D2
    6. 215-D4 D3
  2. VENNARD 2-biue SCALES
    1. 192 VIN5 D5-D3 FAL
  3. VENNARD IV A LATERAL and INTERARYTENOID 4-18-68 1-4 inc SCALES
    1. 186 VIN #1 C5-C3 FAL
    2. 187 LAT INCREASES
    3. 189 VIN3 C#5-C#3 FAL
  4. VENNARD INTERARY 8-13 inc SCALES
    1. 196 VIN 8 C4-C3 CH
    2. 199 VIN 11 C#4-C#2 CH
    3. 202 VIN 13 D4-D2 CH
  5. Mr. Vernnard (TV-B) cricothyr, lateral and vocalis) processed 7-31-’68 (#1-2) SCALES
    1. 094 strain
    2. 095 VIN #1 C5-C2
  6. VENNARD II 15 C4-C3 PORTAMENTO 8va LEAPS
    1. 154 VII 15  C4-C3 WITH PORTAMENTO
    2. 159 #16 C4-C3 NO PORTAMENTO
  7. 099 V IV A 3 C#5-C#2
  8. VENNARD iv -B INTRINSIC 5-6
    1. 103 V IV B 5
  9. VENNARD I 13-14 INTRINSIC SCALES
    1. 101 #13 D5-D3 FAL
    2. 102 CH? #14 D4-D2 CHEST
  10. VENNARD III EXTRINSIC 24,25
    1. 179 Vx24 D
    2. 180 vX 25 D
  11. VENNARD I DEC 5 1967 9-10 INTRINSIC SCALES
    1. 095 V #9 C5-C3 FAL CH
    2. 096 V #10 C4-C2 CHEST
  12. VENNARD III EXTRINSIC 17-22 inc.
    1. 167 Vx 17 d 2 8vc desc FAL
    2. 168 Vx 18
    3. 170 Vx 19
    4. 171 2 8vc desc CH C
    5. 172 Vx 20 C 2 8vc desc. CH
    6. 174 Vx 21 C 2 8vc desc. Ch
    7. 175 Vx 22 C#
  13. VENNARD II SCALES 11-16 inc SCALES (also 8vc leap with and without PORTAMENTO
    1. 127 V II #11 C3-C4 SCALE CHEST
  14. VENNARD II 12-13 8ve LEAP
    1. 137 V II C3-C4 with PORTAMENTO ARTIFACTS?
    2. 139 #13 C3-C4 NO PORTAMENTO
  15. VENNARD II 11-12
    1. 131 V II #11 C3-C4 CH
    2. 134 V II #12
  16. VENNARD II 14 DESCENDING SCALES
    1. 144 V II 13 C3-C4 NO PORTAMENTO
    2. 145 #14 C4-C3 SCALE
  17. VENNARD III EXTRINSIC 4-8
    1. 146 Vx4 C#
    2. 147 Vx5 D
    3. 149Vx6 D
    4. 151 Vx7 C2-C5
    5. 153 Vx8 C#
  18. VENNARD III 1 EXTRINSIC April 18 1968 3 8vc SCALE
    1. 140 Vx 3 8vc desc C
  19. VENNARD III EXTRINSIC 10-15
    1. 156 Vx 10 C#
    2. 158 Vx II C# BREAK TO FAL
    3. 159 Vx 12
    4. 161 Vx 13 2 8vc FAL desc. C
    5. 162 Vx 14
    6. 164 Vx 15 C#  2 8vc desc. FAL
  20. VENNARD INTERARY 15-21 inc SCALES
    1. 205 VIN 15 D4-D2 CH

Envelope (Written “OCTAVE SCALES INTRINSIC”, Airmail, From Communication Sciences Laboratory Department of Speech University of Florida to Dr. William Vennard Dec 4, 68)

Sonograms     

  1. VENNARD INTERARY 8vc SCALES [a]
  1. 033 VIN 53 Swallowed
  1. VENNARD INTERARYTENOID 8vc SCALES [a]
    1. 037 VIN 55 depressed larynx
  2. VIN 48 C SCALE NORMAL [a] IIII 48Brgin (2x) 50 Breathing, 61 Strained, 63 Twangy
  3. VENNARD INTERARYTENOID 8vc SCALES [a]
    1. 027 VIN 50 normal
    2. 028 VIN 51 Pinches
  4. VENNARD 023 VIN 49 Breathing C SCALE [a]
  5. VENNARD 031 VIN 52 normal Excessive interarytenoid. Same as pinched 52 pinched, 54 swallowed, 56 Dep. Lar, 59 El. Teeth
  6. VENNARD IV -B [a]  8vc SCALES
    1. 039 VIN 56 normal
  7. VENNARD IV -B [a]  8vc SCALES
    1. VIN 58 CLENCHED TEETH 045 VIN 59 normal
  8. VENNARD IV -B [a]  8vc SCALES
    1. VIN 60 STRAINED
    2. 049 61 normal
    3. 051 62 Twangy
  9. VENNARD IV -B [a] 
    1. VIV B 23 Strained /a/
  10. VENNARD IV -B [a]  8vc SCALES
    1. 63 normal
    2. 054 64 Honky
  11. VENNARD IV -B [i]  8vc SCALES
    1. V IV B STRAINED [i]
    2. 182 37 normal /i/
  12. VENNARD IV -B [a] 
  13. V IV B 21 CLENCHED TEETH [a]
    1. 148 22 normal /a/
  14. VENNARD IV -B [i]
    1. 178 V IV B 35 normal /i/
  15. VENNARD IV -B [u]
    1. 205 V IV B 48 normal /u/
    2. 206 49. Strained /u/
  16. VENNARD IV -B [u]
    1. V IV B 47 Shallow /u/
  17. VENNARD IV -B [a]
    1. 141 v iv b 19 normal /a/
    2. 148 20 shallow /a/
  18. VENNARD IV -B [i]
    1. 171 V IV B 32 normal /i/
    2. 172 NORMAL OR SHALLOW?
    3. 174 33 Teeth Clenched /i/
  19. VENNARD IV -B [a]  8vc SCALES
    1. 139 V IV B DEPRESSED LAR [a]
  20. VENNARD IV -B [i]
    1. V IV B SWALLOWED [i]
    2. 167 30 normal /i/
    3. 168 31. Depressed larynx /i/
  21. VENNARD IV -B [u]
    1. 197 44 normal /u/
    2. 199 45. Depressed larynx /u/
  22. VENNARD IV -B [a] 
    1. V IV B 14 PINCHED [a]
    2. 132 #15 normal /a/
    3. 133 16 Swallowed /a/
  23. VENNARD IV -B [i]
    1. V IV B 27 PINCHED [i]
    2. 163 28 normal /i/ 
  24. VENNARD IV -B [u]
    1. 193 V IV B 42 normal /u/ 194 43 Swallowed /u/
  25. V IV B 39 /u/ Pinched
  26. V IV B 38 NORMAL [u]
  27. VENNARD IV -B  8vc SCALES  [a]
    1. 127 V IV B # 13 normal /a/
  28. V IV B 25 BREATHY [i]
    1. 158 VIN 26 normal /i/
  29. VENNARD IV - B [i]
    1. V IV B 25 BREATHY [i]
  30. VENNARD IV-B [a]
    1. V IV B 12 BREATHY [a]
  31. VENNARD IV-B [a]
    1. V IV B 11 NORMAL [a]
  32. VENNARD I 27 SHORT MELODIES
    1. 128 # 27 A3, 123454321 HD - FAL - HD
    2. 130 G 3 12345654321 HD - FAL - HD
  33. VENNARD I DEC 4 1967 18-24 INTRINSIC SHORT MELODIES
    1. #18 123422171
    2. 114 HD in G3
    3. 115 19 G3 1234321 HD - FAL - HD
    4. 117 # 20 G3 123422171 HEAD
    5. 118 #21 “ FAL
    6. 120 #22, “ FAL
    7. 121 #23 “ HEAD
    8. 123 $24 “ CHEST

35. 200 VIVB #50? NORMAL [u] FORTE 48 SHALLOW, 50 STRAINED


Envelope (Written “MY MOM inc mam, ama”, From Speech Sciences Laboratory State University of New York to Mindru Hiran, M.D. Phonetics Laboratory Dept. of Linguistics UCLA)

Sonograms

            VENNARD EXTRINSIC My Mom VOCAL FRY


Envelope (Written “ 1 ½   8vc SCALES”,From Berton Coffin, Boulder, COLO. to Mr. Wm Vennard)

Sonograms     

            VENNARD IV INTERARY C3-F4-C3 [a]


Envelope (Written “MELISM INCL STACCATO, MARCATO, CHUCKLE”, From J. Ohale(?difficult to read)

Sonograms

            VENNARD IV B STACCATO, MARCATO, CHUCKLE


Envelope (Written “SUSTAINED TONES”, Airmail, From Communication Sciences Laboratory Department of Speech University of Florida  Gainesville, Florida to Dr. William Vennard)

Sonograms     

VENNARD SUSTAINED TONES


Envelope (Written “ATTACKS” From The American Speech and Hearing Association Washington, D. C. to Mindru Hiran, M.D. Phonetics Laboratory Dept. of Linguistics Los Angeles, Calif. Feb 21’ 68)

Sonograms

            VENNARD II INTRINSIC ATTACKS


Envelope (Written “ARPEGGIOS BY REGISTER SHORT SCALES YODEL, ETC”)

Sonograms

            VENNARD IV - B ARPEGGIOS FAL and CH 70-71


Envelope (Written “OCTAVE SCALES EXTRINSIC” From Dr. S. Nishi Neurophysiology Laboratory Department of Pharmacology Stritch School of Medicine Loyola University Feb 28’ 67)

Sonograms

            VENNARD X  8vc SCALES


Folder Written “Questionnaires - Men”

  • Answer sheet handwritten or typewritten by 118 people
  • List of Code names - Real names
  • Picture-Black and White with signature from Howard Sutherland
  • List of people under Tapes erased from June 10, 1969-October 1970
  • Blank Answer sheets

Envelope - Black (torn)

Sonograms

  • Each sonogram with handwritten description of vowels, such as covered [a], spread [a], open [a], pinched [a], normal [i], ect.   

Folder Written “Questionnaires - Women”

  • Season’s Greetings card - to Mr. Vennard from Jeannine Christmas 1967
  • Season’s Greetings card - from Sophie
  • List of Code names - Real names
  • Blank Answer sheets
  • Answer sheet handwritten or typewritten by 161 people and one unfinished
  • Repertoire Sheets of Anna Anna
  • List of people under Tapes erased from June 10, 1969-October 1970
  • Picture-Black and White with signature from Joyce MacDonald
  • Picture-Black and White with Joyce MacDonald’s EQUITY A GVA

Pages from a small book

Die Versuchspersonen, ihr Vorstellunstypus und ihre Singstmmen

  • German language
  • Pages with graphs
  • Pages of sonogram of Opera singers

Folder Written “ Vennard (Personal Correspondence)

  • “The Bulletin” May 15, 1957 
    • The Official Magazine of NATS
      • People Make Workshops
      • The Classification of Human Voices
  • Typewritten
    • Report to Dr. von KleinSmid
      • his recent attendance at Voice Conference at the Sorbonne
    • Reply to Dr. Hussen regarding various classification of voices
    • Letter to Dr. Hussen regarding various classification of voices
    • Folia Phoniatrica, Vol. 1-3, p. 186. Trans by Jill Perkins
    • Written by Raoul Husson: Study of the Physiological Phenomenon and Acoustical Fundamentals of the Singing Voice. Thesis for Doctor of Sciences held June 1950 at the Sorbonne
  • Los Angeles Times Calendar, Sunday, September 2, 1962
  • Photocopied page 464-465
    • Libri (chapter title)
      • Vennard, W.: SInging - The Mechanism and the Technic. Third revised ed., greatly enlarged 1967. Distributed by Carl Fischer, Inc. Cooper Square, New York, N. Y. 100 03, 275 p., 75 illustr. Price: $5.75
  • Program
    • From Grand Congress International sur La voix Parlee et Chantee Les Languages, Les Langues Et La Pensee
      • Paris, les 18-19-20-21 Octobre 1955
  • Program
    • Association Francaise            Pour L’etude De La Phonation Et Du Language
      • Les 16,17,18 et 19 Octobre 1956
  • Letter
    • Typewritten by Raoul Husson to Monsieur William Vennard Le 26 Mars 1957
    • Typewritten by William Vennard to Raoul Husson April 3, 1957
    • Typewritten by Raoul Husson to Monsieur William Vennard Le 10 Mai 1957
      • Maybe photocopied
    • Typewritten from The Medical School,  Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois  to Monsieur William Vennard May 10, 1957
      • Hand signed but illegible
    • Typewritten by William Vennard to Raoul Husson May 11, 1957
      • Thanking Dr. Husson for finding his book interesting
    • Typewritten by William Vennard to Raoul Husson May 16, 1957
      • Accepting the invitation to be a member of Haut-College to prepare a paper
    • Typewritten by Raoul Husson to Monsieur William Vennard Le 17 Mai 1957
    • Typewritten to Dr. von KleinSmid 
      • Need financial assistance for trip to Paris to present his research
    • Typewritten by William Vennard to Raoul Husson June 10, 1957
      • Thanking for two beautiful brochures that he hoped to publish on NATS Bulletin
    • Typewritten by Raoul Husson to Monsieur William Vennard Le 13 Juin 1957
    • Typewritten by Raoul Husson to Monsieur William Vennard Le 19 Juin 1957
    • Typewritten by William Vennard to Raoul Husson June 19, 1957
      • Thanking Dr. Husson for giving Dr. Piquet’s address to get the film for their workshops
    • Typewritten by Raoul Husson to Monsieur William Vennard Le 28 Juin 1957
    • Typewritten by William Vennard to Raoul Husson July 18, 1957
      • Thanking Dr. Husson for his article on the vowels, vowel pyramid-vowel formation and registration
    • Haut-College International Le 26 Juillet 1957 Communication Importante
    • Typewritten by Raoul Husson to Monsieur William Vennard Le Ier Aout 1957
      • Quick translation included
        •  Thanking him for his writing his thoughts and reflections
        • Film from M. Piquet arrived
    •  Typewritten by Raoul Husson to Monsieur William Vennard Le 20-8-57
    • Typewritten by Raoul Husson to Monsieur William Vennard Le 5 Septembre 1957
    • Typewritten by Raoul Husson to Monsieur William Vennard Le 13-10-57
    • Typewritten by William Vennard to Raoul Husson September 11, 1957
      • Building Mountain cabin -wonderful change from working with one’s brain and nerves
      • Tomorrow pick up passport to attend the Haut-College International
    • Typewritten by William Vennard to Raoul Husson September 19, 1957
      • Finishing the English draft of his article on the subject
  • Program
    • Haut-College International pour L’etude Psychophysologique et psychopathologique des Languages, Les Langues Et La Pensee
      • Paris,16-17 Octobre 1957
  • Haut-College International Le 20 Sept. 1957
    • Typewritten to William Vennard
  • Letter
    • Typewritten by William Vennard to Raoul Husson September 26, 1957
      • Thanking him for translating his article into French
    • Typewritten by William Vennard to Raoul Husson November 9, 1957
      • Anything further things he could do for his paper
      • Happy for Dr. Husson’s success of his congress
    • Typewritten by Raoul Husson to Monsieur William Vennard Le 16 Novembre 1957
    • Typewritten by William Vennard to Raoul Husson December 14, 1957
      • Dr. Husson’s illness
      • Merry Christmas and Happy New Year
  • Magazine
    • French language
    • Ripped page about Mr. Vennard (U.S.A)
  • Card- Bonne Annee
    • Handwritten by Raoul Husson 5-1-58
    • Stapled with Typewritten letter by William Vennard to Raoul Husson January 11, 1958
      • Thanking him for the card
  • Letter
    • Typewritten by William Vennard to Raoul Husson April  7, 1958
      • Thanking him for his latest article, especially the effect on laryngeal function of varying conditions of the hard palate
    • Typewritten by Raoul Husson to Monsieur William Vennard Le 10 Avril 1958

Photographic Slides

Purchased at an estate sale in Sycamore, IL; these mostly appear to be tourist photographs, even though they are from around the time of _Voice Production: The Vibrating Larynx_

  • Amsterdam
  • England
  • France
  • Germany | Austria | Switzerland
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Lab | Groningen | Nykøbing | Paterswolde
  • Misc. USA
  • Rome
  • Scandinavia
  • Spain [blue containers]
  • Stratford, Ontario

Binder

Folder: Friedrich Brodnitz reprints

Folder: "Singing -- Dr. Nares"

  • Nares, James. A Treatise on Singing in Which Is Exhibited and Explained by Examples All the Known Rules of Solmisation, or Learning to Sing by Notes With Directions for the Delivery & Management of the Voice, Drawn from Observations on Nature as Well as Art, Highly Usefull in All Societies Where Singing by Notes Is Necessary, Being Adapted to Make That Study Easy & Clear. Longman and Broderip, 1780.
  • Typewritten note included: "I ran onto [sic] this in the Fitzwilliam Library, Cambridge, during my searchings last year. I thought it might amuse you. [--] Bill Schaefer" [USC Wind Orchestra conductor, 1950s]

Norman Punt [photocopies]

  •  Laryngology Applied to Singers and Actors. Invicta Press, 1983.
  • The Singer's and Actor's Throat: The Vocal Mechanism of the Professional Voice User and Its Care in Health and Disease. Third edition. Heinemann Medical Books, 1979.

Personal Papers

  • Proposal for a New Doctoral Curriculum in the [USC] Voice Department, 10/27/69 (originals, copies, and supporting materials)
  • Biographical Data, sent to Thomas Cleveland by Mrs. Vennard 2/4/88
  • "Press Notices" -- typewritten quotes from reviews of various performances: the 1957 West Coast premiere of Carlisle Floyd's Susannah,  1958 USC recital and Mass in B Minor (Philharmonic, conducted by Roger Wagner), and 1960 recital in The Hague

Photocopies (see William Vennard tab)

  • In Memoriam: Selected Articles From the Writings of William Vennard
  • "The Pupil-Teacher Relationship"
  • "Building Correct Singing Habits"
  • "Toward an Objective Vocabulary for Voice Pedagogy"
  • "Laryngeal Singing Function Studied in New Sound Film."

Compiled by Andrew Schultz

1. Envelope: Vocalises from Schmidt

  1. Outside Markings
    1. Address
      1. Mr. William Vennard, Los Angeles, CA
    2. Return Address
      1. Willard Schmidt, Garden Grove, CA
    3. Miscellaneous Markings
      1. VOCALISES written in permanent marker on front and back of envelope
  2. Contents
    1. Sonogram labeled: Vennard II 17 Intrinsic Vocalises
      1. Pages numbered 165 - 214 (markings on pages as follows)
        1. 165 VII 17 Yawn Sigh
        2. 167 #17 Yawn Sigh
        3. 171 543212345678<>1C
        4. 187 lu, lu, lu
        5. 189 7.5
        6. 190 Break
        7. 191 Break
        8. 192 Break
        9. 193 lu, lu, lu 12321 8 76
        10. 194 54321 INCOMPLETE 1232 8
        11. 195 7654321
        12. 203 aei aee aea
        13. 208 [aea] 123454321
        14. 209 6.0
    2. Sonogram labeled: Vennard Extrinsic 142 Vocalises
      1. Pages numbered 252 - 296 (markings on pages as follows)
        1. 252 VX 142 Yawn-Sigh
        2. 255 6.0
        3. 256 145 543212345678<>1
        4. 267 VX lu lu lu 7.0
        5. 273 VX 147 12321 8 7654321
        6. 283 148
        7. 284 VX Nasty [ae] i e a
        8. 289 VX 149 ae 123454321

2. Envelope: Other Articles

  1. Outside Markings
    1. Prof. Vennard
    2. Should be given back to Dr. von Deden (crossed out)
    3. OTHER ARTICLES written in pencil on front and back
  2. Contents
    1. ASA Meeting in Ottawa
      1. Dated May 21, 1968
      2. The Function of Laryngeal Muscles in Regulating Fundamental Frequency and Intensity of Phonation, Minoru Hirano, William Vennard and John Ohala
      3. States seemingly known facts.
        1. “An increase in fundamental frequency and intensity can be produced by at least four conditions:”
          1. “First, an increase in tension in the vocal cords.”
          2. “Second, an increase in the medial compression of the vocal cords.”
          3. “Third, an increase in the air flow rate.”
          4. “Fourth, an increase in the subglottic pressure.”
          5. “Finally, changes in the shape of the vocal tract can affect the fundamental frequency and intensity of voice.”
      4. Makes case for study
        1. “...several questions have remained unanswered.”
          1. “...all the parameters...participate equally”
          2. “...whether there are different mechanisms of controlling the fundamental frequency and intensity depending on different kinds of phonation”
          3. “...whether the regulatory mechanism is different in speech and in singing.”
      5. Describes how study was done
        1. “We studied the activity of some of the intrinsic  laryngeal muscles electromyographically. The use of hooked wire electrodes and the transcutaneous approach to these muscles has made it feasible to record…”
      6. Test Subjects
        1. Six native English speakers
        2. five male, one female, three of which are professional singers
        3. Sang musical scales, arpeggios, sustained tones which changing dynamics, all done in different ranges
        4. Also spoke several sentences
        5. Remainder describes results
        6. Includes cues for 12 slides
    2. Letter to the Editor, Dr. James Jerger, of the Houston Speech and Hearing Center, from Minoru Hirano (includes paperclipped note, “copy for Dr. Vennard”)
      1. Dated August 23, 1968
      2. Seems to be a edited version of the presentation for the ASA Meeting in Ottowa
        1. Additions include abstract, discussion section, summary, notes, acknowledgements, and references.
      3. Submitting paper entitled “The function of laryngeal muscles in regulating fundamental frequency and intensity of phonation” by Minoru Hirano, John Ohala and William Vennard to the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research
    3. Photos of Soundwaves labeled as Figures 1 - 7 in pencil on the back of each
      1. Each Figure has range of Fundamental F0 at the top and shows readings for the cricothyroid, lateral cricoarytenoid, vocalis, and audio.
      2. Some have headers, others labeled in pencil on the back
        1. Figure 1
          1. Octave Scale in Chest Voice (C3-C4-C3)
        2. Figure 2
          1. Octave Scale in Falsetto (C4-C5-C4)
        3. Figure 3
          1. Swelltone in Chest, G3
        4. Figure 4
          1. Swelltone, HD to Chest to HD, C4
        5. Figure 5
          1. Swelltone, Falsetto, C4
        6. Figure 6
          1. Swelltone, Falsetto, G4
        7. Figure 7
          1. D
        8. Figure 7 (two pictures labeled Fig. 7)
          1. B
    4. Regulation of register, pitch and intensity of voice. An electronic investigation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles (no date), Minoru Mirano*, William Vennard**, John Ohala
      1. From the Phonetics Laboratory, University of California, Los Angeles, California
      2. Phonatory material
        1. Musical Scales, Sustained tones, Swelltones, Arpeggios, Vocalises, Phrases of songs
      3. Regulation of Register
        1. Measured in two ways
          1. Muscular activity was compared among sustained tones at different registers
          2. Muscular activity while singing scales through the register change
    5. Journal Article: Acta Oto-Laryngologica Volume 64, 500-507 (1967), Possibly a publication proof, printed on glossy paper
      1. Can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/00016486709139135
      2. The SternoHyoid Muscle During Phonation, Electromyographic Studies, M. Hirano, Y. Koike, H. Von Leden, Los Angeles Calif., U.S.A.
      3. “Electrical activity of the sternohyoid muscle was studied in three normale male adults and related to phonic functions.”
      4. Technique of Investigation
        1. Three, vocally trained male adults, not professionals
        2. Concentric needle electrode inserted into the sternohyoid muscle
      5. Evaluation of Muscular Activity
        1. Increasing contraction power of a muscle the rate and number of single motor unit potentials increase.
      6. Results
        1. Electrical activity of the sternohyoid muscle in relation to vowels, pitch, volume, and combined pitch and volume
        2. Figures are included for each test
      7. Discussion
        1. Further tests needed

3. AFS 3: Small Envelope

  1. Outside Markings
    1. Mailing Address (typed)
      1. Mr. William Vennard, Los Angeles
    2. Return address (Stamp)
      1. Hans von Leden, M.D., Los Angeles
      2. June 28, 1967
  2. Content
    1. Five (5) cardboard, roughly 8.5 x 5 inches
      1. Each has segments of sonograph printouts glued onto the center of the card
      2. Each one say TOP showing which way to view
      3. One card says 35mm 2x2 mount

4. AFS 4: Envelope

  1. Outside Markings
    1. FRITZELL written in black permaneant marker
    2. Address
      1. Mr. William Vennard, Univ. of So. Calif.
    3. Return Address
      1. Difficult to read name: Mrs. F Robertson???
      2. Woodland Hills, Calif.
    4. Postage
      1. Possibly 1964
  2. Content
    1. Sonograph printouts
      1. With the following labels, and include one of three vowels [a], [u], [i]
        1. Honky
        2. Swallowed
        3. Normal
        4. Breathy
        5. Focused
        6. Focused Normal
        7. Spread
        8. Open
        9. Covered
        10. Normal Artifacts?
        11. Normal After Twang
        12. Twangy
        13. Strained
        14. Clenched Teeth
        15. Shallow
        16. Depressed Larynx
        17. Pinched
      2. A single sheet with vowel changing; nasal ae, i, nasal ae, e, nasal ae, a
      3. Copies of 8 of the previously listed printouts

Compiled by Colin Stave

I. “Anna Eva”

  1. Container: Envelope
    1. Front (Hand-written labeling and preprinted type):
      • ANNA EVA
      • Tapes 1-6
      • Mtn. View
      • Ed: Jan Schmidt
    2. Back (Hand-written)
      1. ANNA EVA
  2. Contents, Generally:
    1. Notes on lessons (possibly not taught by Vennard)
      1. Dated and named
      2. Numeric timestamps, 1-3 digits
      3. Commentary
      4. Vocalises
        1. IPA
        2. scale-degrees
        3. starting/ending pitches
      5. Self-quotes of instructions
    2. References to other lessons (“ANNA BETTY” “ANNA JANET”), indicate “ANNA” may not indicate a person’s name, but something else.
  3. Contents, List:
    1. ANNA EVA September 25 1962
      1. A-1, timestamps 10-350
        1. Descriptions of vocalises
        2. Commentary
        3. Self-quotes
        4. Student-quotes
    2. ANNA EVA Oct 2 1962
      1. A-1, timestamps 350-750; A-2, timestamps 10-126
        1. Descriptions of vocalises
        2. Commentary
        3. Self-quotes
        4. Student-quotes
    3. ANNA EVA October 16 1962
      1. A-2, timestamps 130-707
        1. Descriptions of vocalises
        2. Commentary
        3. Self-quotes
        4. Student-quotes
    4. ANNA EVA May 28 1963 (3 pages)
      1. A-1, timestamps 10-709
        1. Descriptions of vocalises
        2. Commentary
        3. Self-quotes
        4. Student-quotes
      2. On the back: “An excerpt was prepared from this tape, including roughly 100-175, 195-210, 425-470. This appears at the beginning of the following lessons: ANNA BETTY, ANNA JANET”
    5. ANNA EVA-I-A-1 (134 hand-numbered pages)
      1. Different handwriting, perhaps these are Vennard’s observations of another teacher, referred to as “T.” (male)
      2. “(Forgot to turn digit adjustor to 000 on Tape I. Sorry.)”
        1. This count starts at 971, so could be mathematically adjusted to above outline of lessons.
      3. Appears to be a long-hand journal or commentary of the above lessons, or something that is being indexed against them somehow.
        1. Also includes short-hand lesson notes similar to above, but is recorded continuously, without starting new pages for each date.
      4. Includes dates:
        1. Sept 25, 1962
        2. Oct 2—2
        3. Oct 16, 1962—3
        4. Oct 22, 1962—4
        5. Oct 30, 1962—5
        6. Nov 6, 1962—6
        7. Nov 13, 1962—7
        8. Nov 27, 1962—8
        9. Dec 11, 1962—9
          1. Margin note: “Also on box: AE sang 2 ‘Messiah’s’ Dr. reported improvement but advised rest. She didn’t tell him she’d sung concerts.”
            1. This could indicate Anna Eva was under a doctor’s care for vocal fatigue or damage
            2. Yes, indication that Dec. 4th lesson cancelled on doctor’s orders: enlarged blood vessel on “vocal cord.”
              1. Wanted advice about singing 2 Messiah’s against doctor’s orders. “T advised rest ‘til concert, fulfill obligation, rest afterward.
        10. Start of new tape: AE II-A-2
        11. Dec 11 (cont’d)
        12. Dec 18, 1962—10
        13. January 15, 1963—11
        14. Jan. 22, 1963—12
          1. Tape count 466: “Tape broke (has been spliced)”
        15. Feb 19, 1963—13
        16. Feb 26, 1963—14
        17. Start of new tape: AE III-A-2
        18. Feb. 26 (contd)
        19. March 5, 1963—15
        20. Start of new tape: AE-III-B-1
        21. March 19, 1963—16
        22. March 26, 1963—17
        23. April 2, 1963—18
          1. Ingolf Dahl quote: “They write for the voice as if it were a clarinet, then are sorry when it sounds like a voice.”
            1. Possibly retold from a choral rehearsal?
        24. Start of new tape: AE IV-A-1 (looks like: “AE IV-17-1”)
        25. April 16, 1963—19
        26. Start of new tape: AE IV-A-2
        27. April 30, 1963—20
        28. May 7, 1963—21
        29. Start of new tape: AE III-B-1 (Maybe AE IV-B-2?)
        30. May 14, 1963—22
          1. Starting on page “95” the heading lists AE IV-B-1 instead of “III”, but the tape count doesn’t change. One of these could be wrong? I suspect the whole lesson should be “IV” since that’s what the previous tape was.
        31. Start of new tape: AE IV-B-2
        32. May 21, 1963—23
          1. Includes long conversation on coloratura (count 170) and registration
          2. Includes conversation about teaching of vibrato
        33. Start of new tape: AE V-A-1
        34. May 28, 1963—24
          1. “adolescent falsetto”
          2. Coloratura
          3. Coached with [Frank] La Forge. He wanted to make everyone into [Lily] Pons
          4. Belle Forbes Cutter
            1. Student struggled in Germany. Cutter: Germans don’t understand coloratura
            2. T says: Cutter has microphone voice, immature sound, so that’s why her student was like that in Germany.
          5. Should we train all voices alike?
        35. Oct 9, 1963—25
        36. Start of new tape: AE V-A-2
        37. Oct. 9, 1963 (cont’d)
          1. Register transitions
        38. Oct 16, 1963—26
        39. Start of new tape: AE V-B-1
        40. Oct 23, 1963—27
          1. Whistle [register]
        41. Oct 30, ’63—28
          1. [Eileen?] Farrell
          2. [Dietrich] Fischer-Dieskau
            1. T: “controlled—but precious and I get bored with it.”
        42. Start of new tape: AE V-B-2
        43. Oct 30, 1963 (contt’d)
          1. [Joan] Sutherland
        44. Nov 6, 1963—29
        45. Start of new tape: AE VI-A-1
        46. Nov 13-1963—30
          1. “Stanley” is another teacher referred to
            1. Beginners and loud singing
            2. Coordination of register shifts
          2. [Manuel] Garcia, views on registration
        47. Nov 20, 1963—31
          1. “Just do it” = secure
        48. Start of new tape: AE VI-A-2
        49. Nov 27, 1963—32
          1. Vowels for head voice
        50. End of notes
    6. Student bio for Anna Eva. Typed form, typed carbon copy answers.
      1. Indicates value of taped voice lessons in research at USC, in conjunction with this questionnaire.
      2. There is a second copy of the form, with slightly different formatting. Answers are basically the same, but obviously typed separately.
    7. Repertoire Sheet for Anna Eva. 1962-63. Typed form, typed carbon copy answers.
      1. Includes fields:
        1. Composer
        2. Title
        3. Comments by Jurors
      2. Appears to be typed retroactively, perhaps compiling from handwritten jury forms.
      3. Not signed
    8. Digital Numbers for Excerpts (Anna Eva)
      1. Looks like some hand-picked selections of excerpts from the compilation of recordings.
      2. Total of digit ranges: approx. 4,817
  4. End of packet.

II. “Intrinsic”

  1. Container: Envelope (reused)
    1. Front and Back:
      1. Hand-written: “Intrinsic”
  2. Contents: Generally
    1. Graphs (spectrographs?)
      1. With minor notes
    2. Notes of clinical observations
    3. Typed manuscript drafts
    4. Tables of clinical observations
    5. My general assessment is that the majority of this packet’s contents are personal notes and outlines of research, which were intended to inform personal work on that research, and thus use substantial short-hand and unquantified numbers and diagrams. These likely were intended to inform a more thoroughly edited publication.
  3. Contents
    1. Individual sheets of 4 line spectrograms, including numeric references to some other contemporaneous source.
      1. All dated 1/23/68 (handwritten) (a few say 1/23/67, but this is likely a mental mistake). All dates are accompanied by “Vennard” and a number (speed?).
      2. They seem to be examining variations between different vocal strategies of a short phrase
      3. Sheets numbered: “[##]) [phrase]”
      4. List:
        1. 1/23/68, Vennard, 477
          1. 38-40: “Bev bombed Bob” with varying syllable stresses
          2. 41-42: “Did Bev bomb Bob?” with varying syllable stresses
          3. 43: “Bev bombed Bob?”
        2. 1/23/68, Vennard, 677
          1. 31-36: “My Mom”
            1. Normal, G3
            2. Hypertense (nasal), G3
            3. Hypotense, G3
            4. High larynx
            5. Low larynx
            6. Glottal fry
        3. 1/23/68, Vennard, Speed: 1177
          1. 8-28
  1. F3-A3-C4-A3-F3, head
  2. F3-A3-C4-A3-F3, falsetto
  3. F3-A3-C4-A3-F3, chest
  4. C3-C4 (scale)
  5. C3-C4 (portamento)
  6. C3-C4 (stepwise)
  7. C4-C3 (scale)
  8. C4-C3 (portamento)
  9. C4-C3 (stepwise)
  10. [missing]
  11. “Mistrigorring!!”, C4, head, u a i
  12. [missing]
  13. C4, head, a i u
  14. B-flat 3, head, u a i
  15. B-flat 3, head, i u a
  16. B-flat 3, head a i u
  17. C4, falsetto, u a i
  18. C4, falsetto, i u a
  19. C4, falsetto, a i u
  20. C4, hest (sic), u a i
  21. C4, chest, u a I (same intensity)
    1. Typewritten draft (single sheet)
      1. 2 drafts of a paragraph about the larynx
      2. Includes redactions and edits
    2. Handwritten notes on vocalises, source and reference unclear
      1. 3 exercises, listed as “#3, #2, #1” in descending order; “good”, “most interesting”, “best” respectively
    3. Handwritten notes comparing bass and soprano voices, source and reference unclear
      1. References to intrinsic muscles and activities
    4. Stapled packet: “EMB. Subject:Professor W. Vennard”  December 5, 1967 (Summarized January 16, 1968 by M. Hirano)
      1. Observations of various intrinsic muscles:
        1. Cricothyroid
        2. Lateral Cricoarytenoid
        3. Vocalis
      2. List of exercises
      3. Comparing registers and register shifts
      4. Table 1: Relation of activity to register & F0
        1. Measurements in mm
      5. Handwritten table, (similar to above?)
      6. Handwritten table: Change of Register on Middle C (C#)
        1. Comments/observations on: vibrato, falsetto, CT muscle, Chest, Vocalis, Head,
      7. “Symposium on Falsetto” (Handwritten outline)
    5. Typed list of questions, with page-number references
      1. Vennard, Dec. 5, 1967
      2. Vennard, Jan 23, 1968
      3. Vennard, April 18, 1968
      4. Cepparo, March 7, 1968
      5. Cepparo, May 1, 1968
      6. Merle Moore, May 13, 1968
    6. Typed letter to Dr. Hirano, March 2, 1968
      1. Summarizes thoughts on a “first draft” of a paper
      2. Summarizes desire for more information or research
      3. References to: “Mrs. Cepparo” and “Dr. Rubin”
    7. Single page of a typewritten draft (page 6)
      1. Hand-written edits
      2. Describing intrinsic muscular activity in various types of singing.
      3. Paper is the back-side of a NATS letterhead
    8. More 4-line spectrographs, seem to be from the same set as above (i.) Could be re-united/re-organized?
      1. All dated 1/23/68 (handwritten) (a few say 1/23/67, but this is likely a mental mistake). All dates are accompanied by “Vennard” and a number (speed?).
      2. They seem to be examining variations between different vocal strategies of a short phrase
      3. Sheets numbered: “[##]) [phrase]”
      4. List:
        1. 1/23/68, Vennard, Plotted 2/3/68, Speed 677
          1. 4-7: onsets
  1. G3, “imaginary H” onset
  2. Hard onset, G3
  3. Breathy onset, G3
  4. Soft onset, G3
    1. Calib. 2/2/68, 12:00, 1/23/68, Vennard
  1. Seems to be a calibration graph for the machine
    1. 1/23/68, Vennard, 477
      1. 37: Bev bombed Bob
      2. 44-47: registers
  1. G3, head
  2. G3, falsetto
  3. G3, chest
  4. G3, falsetto (II)
    1. Chart: quantifying various samples based on certain muscle measurements
      1. References to: “Tape I”, “Tape II”, “Tape III”
      2. Seems to correspond to the spectrographs listed above
    2. UCLA PHONETICS LAB, EMG DATA SHEET
      1. Jan 23, 1968, Vennard
      2. Seems to be a standard form for the lab, listing what is being studied
    3. Handwritten notes about tapes, somewhat cryptic. Seems to be clinical observations rather than vocal instruction
      1. Robbins, Tape I
      2. Robbins, Tape II
      3. Tape III
    4. Handwritten chart comparing muscle activities against various pitches
      1. X axis: G2, G3, C4, G4, C4 falsetto
      2. Y axis: Cth, Lat, Voc, Flow, Volume
      3. Arrows pointing forward up or forward down
    5. Handwritten notes (3 pages), somewhat cryptic or out of context, reference unclear
    6. Handwritten notes: LOIS CEPPARO (numbered pages 1-4)
      1. Observations of muscular activity at certain pitches
      2. Notes somewhat cryptic
    7. Handwritten notes (6 pages), context unclear
      1. Various laryngeal strategies: Hypertense, Normal, “High lar”, “Low lar”
      2. Various articulations: staccato, marcato, chuckle, melisma
      3. Observations of muscle activity
    8. Handwritten (photocopied) chart comparing muscle activity, exercise, and subject (3 pages)
      1. Includes additional handwritten notes
      2. Compares muscle activity corresponding to register shift
      3. Includes summary and comment
    9. Handwritten (photocopied) charts comparing muscle activity on various sustained pitches, across multiple subjects
      1. Different registers (or loudness) at given pitches.
      2. Different pitch at given registers
    10. Handwritten (photocopied) charts comparing muscle activity during “swell tones (messa di voce)”, across multiple subjects and pitches
    11. Handwritten notes (photocopied) numbered R1-R15, 6/12/68, Miss Joawn Robbins [I]
      1. R1-R4: Observations of specific exercises
      2. R5-R6: Chart measuring muscle activity for various exercises
      3. R7: Chart of averages for both “CT” and “LAT” muscles across various registers
      4. R8-R12: Chart comparing muscle activity across various resonance strategies (breathy, pinched, honky, twangy, etc.)
      5. R13-R14: Chart summarizing abnormal phonations for “CT” and “LAT”
      6. R15: Chart of various onset strategies for “CT” and “LAT”
        1. Includes diagrams of patterns
    12. Handwritten notes (photocopied) numbered M1-M30, 5/13/68, Mr. Merle Moore
      1. M1-M7: Tape #1-3, List of various exercises (numbered 1-159)
      2. M8-M9: additional commentary on several of the numbers in M1-M7
      3. M10-M12: Chart comparing various exercises and muscular activity
      4. M13-16: “Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles”
        1. Further commentary and summarization of exercises #1-60
      5. M17-M18: Chart comparing CT, LAT, and VOC for exercises #61-77 (scales)
      6. M19: Chart comparing CT, LAT, and VOC for exercises #78-84
      7. M20: diagrams referring to exercises #85-88, 89 (staccato and marcato)
      8. M21-M22:
        1. commentary on exercises #89-104
        2. diagrams of CT, LAL, VOC for exercises #105-113
      9. M23: commentary on exercises #114-122
      10. M24-M28: diagrams and commentary on exercises #123-159
      11. M29-M30: Chart summarizing abnormal phonation, comparing CT, LAT, and VOC against various resonance strategies
    13. Handwritten notes (photocopied) numbered 1-21; Mrs. Cepparo [I], March 7, ’68, Intrinsic laryngeal muscles
      1. Pg 1: commentary and charts on exercises 1-10
      2. Pg 2-3: diagrams of exercises 11-16
      3. Pg 4: chart of onset activity in a steady position for CT, LAT, VOC, and I; chart of exercises 17-21
      4. Pg 5-7: commentary on exercises 22-40
      5. Pg 8: diagrams of exercises 41-48
      6. Pg. 9: commentary on exercise 49
      7. Pg. 10: [doesn’t exist]
      8. Pg. 11: 5/1/68, Mrs. Cepparo [II], commentary on exercises 1-13
      9. Pg. 12: diagrams on exercises 14-19
      10. Pg. 13-20: commentary on exercises 20-109
      11. Pg. 21: Chart summarizing abnormal phonation across various resonance strategies, vowels, CT, and VOC
    14. Stapled packet, Handwritten (photocopied) notes; Mr. Vennard [II], Jan 23, ’68, Intrinsic laryngeal muscles; pages numbered 1-8
      1. Various commentaries and diagrams of exercises 1-53
    15. Stapled packet, Handwritten (photocopied) notes; 4/18/68, Mr. W. Vennard [IV-B],
      1. cricothyr. Lateral vocalis; page numbered 1-10
        1. Pg. 1:
          1. “Placement of electrodes in CT is not adequate”
          2. “Great microphonics and movement artefact in VOC in the posterior part.
          3. Chart and commentary for Exercises 1-6
        2. Pg. 2: commentary for exercises 7-50
      2. Vocalis & Lateral cricoarytenoid (Tape MH13-14)
        1. Pg. 3: Observations on exercises 1-10
        2. Pg. 4-6: chart comparing VOC and LAT with various phonation strategies (breathy, pinched, etc) of exercises 11-50
        3. Pg. 7: chart of abnormal voice production
        4. Pg. 8-10: diagrams and commentary on exercises 58-82
    16. Stapled packet, Handwritten (photocopied) notes; Mr. W. Vennard [I] Dec 5, ’67; Intrinsic laryngeal muscles (evaluated July 30, ’68); pages numbered 1-4
      1. Charts and commentary on exercises 1-29
    17. Stapled packet, Handwritten (photocopied) notes; Mr. W. Vennard [IV-A], 4/18/68; IA and LAT observations (Tape MH12)
      1. Pg. 1: observations and diagrams of exercises 1-22
      2. Pg. 2: charts of sustained tones at various F0 & registers; exercises 23-38
      3. Pg. 3: charts of swell tones at various F0, exercises 39-45; chart of pianissimo, exercise 46;
      4. Pg. 3-5: chart of various phonation strategies, exercises 47-69
      5. Pg. 5: commentary on exercises 70-73
    18. Stapled packet, Handwritten (photocopied) notes; 4/18/68, Mr. William Vennard, Tapes 1-3
      1. Seems to be a list of the exercises used and referred to by the previous packets.
      2. Tape 1: Exercises 1-77
      3. Tape 2: Exercises 1-65
      4. Tape 3: Exercises 66-82
  5. End of packet

III. Vennard (Personal Correspondence) [this is a continuation of the folder of the same name, started by Rina]

  1. Letter
    1. Dated: “30 Avril 58.” (April 30, 1958)
    2. From: Roul Husson
      1. Docteur es-Sciences Lauréat de L’Institut
    3. To: “Cher Professeur William VENNARD !”
    4. Language: French
    5. Typewritten
    6. 1 half-page sheet of stationery
  2. Magazine clipping[?] or Leaflet[?]: “LA NATURE”
    1. “REVUE DES SCIENCES ET DE LEURS APPLICATIONS”
    2. 2 sheets- previously connected, now torn
  3. Letter
    1. Dated: “15 Janvier 1960.” (January 15, 1960)
    2. From: Raoul Husson
    3. To: “Che Professeur W. VENNARD !”
    4. Language: French
    5. Typewritten
    6. 6 full-sheet pages
    7. Handwritten note: “Ans. 2-12-60” (Answered on Feb 12, 1960)
  4. Small Notepad: “It has been too long a time…”
    1. Partial pad, detached from other pages before and/or after
    2. Most likely written to (not by) Vennard (“poor understanding of English”)
    3. From: unknown colleague.
      1. Has written a “little book on the Singing Voice” (see item #9)
    4. Probably circa 1959 or 1960
    5. Handwritten, pencil
    6. Language: English
    7. 18 pages
    8. 12 numbered paragraph/section headings
  5. Letter
    1. Dated “15 Février 1960”
    2. From: Raoul Husson
    3. To: “Cher Professeur VENNARD !”
    4. Language: French
    5. Typewritten
    6. 1 page
    7. Handwritten note: “Ans May 30…” (answered May 30…)
  6. Book Review
    1. Manuscript (possibly by Vennard, but not explicit)
    2. Typewritten, 4 pages
    3. Book: “The Singing Voice” by Raoul Husson
    4. Dated: April, 1960
    5. Pamphlet for the book attached (in French)
  7. Notes
    1. About: Raoul Husson and something titled “Etude des phénomènes physiologiques et acoustiques fondamentaux de la voix chantée”
      1. Study of fundamental physiological and acoustic phenomena of the sung voice
    2. Handwritten, pencil, 1 page.
    3. Languages: French and English
    4. Appears to include an excerpt in French (numbered 10) and a translation to English
    5. Appears to be written on the back of a spare piece of paper: an academic summary for a DMA Candidate in Music Education: Harvey M. Parsons
  8. Letter
    1. Dated: July 13, 1958
    2. From: Vennard
    3. To: [William] Ross
    4. Language: English
    5. Content:
      1. Concerns about Husson’s work (“too dogmatic”).
      2. Details of some of Vennard and Husson’s correspondence, including quotations.
      3. References of letters Vennard wrote but did not send to Husson
  9. Notecard
    1. “SCALE OF PITCHES EXPRESSED IN CYCLES. (Curry, p. 52)
    2. List of pitch frequencies from “e4. 2560” down to “B’. 60” (white keys only for all but one octave)
  10. “Folder” (An outside cover of “The Bulletin” issue May, 15, 1957) containing correspondence and other items
    1. Note: much of the material in this folder uses the back-side of correspondence received from “RCA Victor Records,” particularly regarding record reviews
    2. Letter
      1. No Date
      2. From: Vennard (most likely, not explicit)
      3. To: Dr. Husson
      4. Typewritten, 5 pages (incomplete?)
      5. Content: Response to Husson’s article on voice classification
      6. Many redactions, might have been a draft
      7. Handwritten (pencil) edits
    3. Chart
      1. 2 axis grid
        1. X: 100 to 1900
        2. Y: .170 to .070
      2. Handwritten, pencil: grey, red, blue
    4. Chart
      1. 1 axis grid
        1. Y: 49 to 128
      2. Handwritten, pencil: grey, red, blue
      3. Series of bar graphs, each ranging from a high male (left) to a high female (right) voice part. For example: “Very High Tenor” to “Very High Soprano”
    5. Notes
      1. A series of 3 numeral sets
      2. Handwritten, pencil
    6. Notes
      1. Sets of numerals (1-4 digits)
      2. Some references to notes (pitches)
      3. Handwritten, pencil
    7. Chart
      1. 2 axis grid
        1. X: 0 to 900
        2. Y: 170 to .055
      2. 3 line arcs, referencing pitches
      3. Voice classifications low to high
    8. Notes
      1. Handwritten, pencil
      2. 9 pages of numerals related to various pitches, 1 page each for a pair of voices:
        1. High tenor or High soprano
        2. Low tenor or low soprano
        3. Ordinary bar or low mezzo-sop.
        4. Intermediate male voice or High Mezzo Contralto
        5. High basso Cantante or low mezzo. Contralto
        6. Ordinary bass or intermed. Between low mezzo-Contralto and Contralto
        7. Bass or Contralto
        8. Basso Profundo or Contralto
        9. Basso Profundo or Contralto
  11. Recital Program
    1. School of Performing Arts, Oakland Univeristy, Meadow Brook Summer School of Music
    2. “HUGO WOLF MORIKE LIEDER”
    3. Performers: Members of the Class of John Wustman
    4. Dates: Part I: Tuesday, August 5, 1969  8:30 p.m.; Part II: Friday, August 8, 1969  8:30 p.m.
    5. Meadow Brook Theatre, Rochester, Michigan
    6. Handwritten along fold: “WOLF TRANSLATIONS”
      1. Note: no translations exist in this program. Insert removed?
  12. Directory
    1. 11th Congress of the International Association of Logopedics & Phoniatrics
    2. Contains an alphabetical list of names and addresses. (Initials and Surnames)
    3. Includes Vennard
    4. 17 pages, double-sided, stapled