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Anthropology *: HRAF Help

Welcome to the primary research guide for Anthropology!

HRAF: Help with Microfiche

How Do I Cite HRAF Sources?


  • Chicago-style citation to the HRAF Collection of Ethnography on microfiche

    Musil, A. (1928). The manners and customs of the Rwala Bedouins. New York: American Geographical Society (HRAF Source 2 in the Rwala file).

    Citation in text:
    (HRAF Source 2: Musil, p. 255-56)

  • APA-style citation to the eHRAF Collection of Ethnography on the Web

    Irwin, G. J. (1983). Chieftainship, Kula and trade in Massim prehistory. In  J.W. Leach (Ed.), The Kula: New Perspectives on Massim Exchange (pp. 29-72). Cambridge, U.K. Cambridge University Press. As seen in the eHRAF Collection of Ethnography on the Web, (Dec 1, 2008).


Human Relations Area Files (HRAF): Introduction

HRAF (Human Relations Area File) is a collection of descriptive ethnographic research data which is located both electronically - through the Library's online databases (eHRAF), and in microfiche - a much more comprehensive collection - at the Reference Desk. HRAF contains descriptive data on more than 300 groups of people from around the world.

HRAF enables the researcher to investigate cross–cultural issues such as sex roles, child care, marriage, and religion. Most of the groups included represent smaller societies such as the Ashanti (FE12), Aztec (NU7), Iroquois (NM09), or Yoruba (FF62).

However, HRAF includes files for U.S. groups such as African Americans (NK4) and Chicanos (N7). In addition other files of interest include: Koreans (AA01), Japanese (AB43), and Vietnamese (AM11).

Find Quotes

Use this guide to find quotes by members of your culture. See also a related guide by Sue Tyson, Finding Primary Sources for Native American Studies.

Source List from HRAF

Head Librarian

Melissa Miller's picture
Melissa Miller
Dr. Melissa L. Miller
Head, Hoose Library of Philosophy / Humanities Librarian
Subject Specialist for: Philosophy, Religion, Anthropology, History of Science and Technology, Linguistics, and Comparative Literature

Office hours: By appointment only