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APA Style 6th Edition: Citing Your Sources

Provide guidance on the APA format style based on the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Sample Reference Page

Keep in mind the following guidelines:
  • References cited in text must appear in the reference list and vice versa (exception for personal communication which is not included in a Reference list).
  • Make sure that all citation information (names of authors, titles, volume and issue numbers, edition number, page numbers, city and state name, publisher name and location information) is correct.
  • When listing titles, the only words you should capitalize are the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle (if there is one), and proper nouns (Russia, Eleanor Roosevelt).  The only exception to this rule is when you list the titles of magazines, newspapers, or academic journals that contain the articles you’re quoting.  In these cases, use “headline” capitalization (meaning you capitalize all words except articles, conjunctions, and prepositions).  See examples below for clarification
  • The following should be italicized:  Titles of books, ebooks, newspapers, journals, magazines, movies, dissertation/thesis, films, videos, television series, podcasts, YouTube videos, artwork, maps, music albums and unpublished manuscripts.  Additionally, volumes of journals are also italicized.
  • Reference lists must be double-spaced, with a hanging indent:
  • The following cities can be listed without a state because they are well known for publishing: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Amsterdam, Jerusalem, London, Milan, Moscow, Paris, Rome, Stockholm, Tokyo, Vienna.


Order of References in Reference List


  • Alphabetize letter by letter
  • Alphabetize prefixes such as Mc and Mac literally
  • Alphabetize surnames that contain articles and prepositions (de, la, du, von, etc.) according to the rules of the language of origin
  • Alphabetize items with numerals as if the numerals were spelled out
  • Alphabetize group authors such as associations or agencies by the first significant word of the name, and use the full official name, not an acronym
  • If the author is designated as Anonymous, then the entry is alphabetized as if Anonymous were a true name
  • If there is no author, the entry is alphabetized by the first significant word in the title