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APA Style: Citing Your Sources


The correct form of abbreviation must be used in reference lists:

chap. chapter
ed. edition
Rev. ed. Revised edition
2nd ed. second edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
Trans. Translators
n.d. no date
p. (pp.) Page (pages)
Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 4)
Vols. Volumes (as in 4 vols.)
No. Number
Pt. Part
Tech. Rep. Technical Report
Suppl. supplement

What's New - 6th Edition

See this link for important updates to the APA Publication Manual.

Important Details

Keep in mind the following guidelines:

  • References cited in text must appear in the reference list and vice versa.
  • Make sure that all citation information (names of authors, titles, volume and issue numbers, edition number, page numbers, city and state name, publisher name and location information) is correct.
  • Reference lists must be double-spaced, with a hanging indent:

McCroskey, J., Nishimoto, R., & Subramanian, K. (1991). Assessment in family

support programs: Initial reliability and validity testing of the Family

Assessment Form. Child Welfare, 70, 19-33.

  • The following cities can be listed without a state because they are well known for publishing: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Amsterdam, Jerusalem, London, Milan, Moscow, Paris, Rome, Stockholm, Tokyo, Vienna.


Order of References in Reference List


  • Alphabetize letter by letter
  • Alphabetize prefixes such as Mc and Mac literally
  • Alphabetize surnames that contain articles and prepositions (de, la, du, von, etc.) according to the rules of the language of origin
  • Alphabetize items with numerals as if the numerals were spelled out
  • Alphabetize group authors such as associations or agencies by the first significant word of the name, and use the full official name, not an acronym
  • If the author is designated as Anonymous, then the entry is alphabetized as if Anonymous were a true name
  • If there is no author, the entry is alphabetized by the first significant word in the title