What is the purpose of citations?
Citations help readers locate your sources. They help to continue the scholarly conversation. To learn more about how citations can help you avoid plagiarism, view this interactive tutorial:
When considering citations and references for your papers, you can ask yourself, "could someone find this information in the future?"
A client's personal file would not need a citation because your reader cannot go find that information again. Census statistics would require a citation because your reader could go locate that information again.
APA requires FOUR ELEMENTS of every citation:
If any of the elements listed above are unavailable, follow this guide on the APA Style Blog for more information on what to do about missing pieces in a citation: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2012/05/missing-pieces.html
View the video below on creating a citation with the four elements above.
Web-based citation managers that allow you to import references from text files, web sites or online databases.
From American Psychological Association (apastyle.org):
A DOI is unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when the article is published and made available electronically.
Use Crossref, a free site, to look up DOIs. The free DOI lookup searches for DOIs using information such as article title, authors, and publisher information.
Here's a sample paper provided by APA. For every style rule, there is a comment highlighted in the paper that tells you where to find the discussion of the rule in the APA Style Manual.
© University of Southern California