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Dental Problem-Based Learning Citations

Citing References for PBL

APA Style 7th edition is the required citation style for PBL. 

  • Access Medicine, R2 Library, Stat!Ref, and PubMed all have options for automatically generating reference citations for ebook chapters and journal articles. See images below. 
  • Check the formatting examples on the APA Style website to make sure the automatically generated references are formatted correctly.
  • Example citations for some common PBL reference types are listed below.
  • View the APA Style website and USC Libraries APA Style Guide for in-depth guidance of formatting rules and more reference examples. 

If you are still having difficulty citing resources, please contact your librarian.

APA Examples for Common PBL Reference Types

Chapter from an edited book Rappaport, B. A. (1999). On-site school-based mental health clinics: 15 years of experience in Orange County, California. In A.H. Esman, & L. T. Flaherty, (Eds.), Adolescent psychiatry: Development and clinical studies, (pp. 91-100). The Analytic Press.
Chapter in an edited ebook without page numbers (include page numbers in same place as above example if page numbers are present) Bronk, K. C., & Baumsteiger, R. (2017). The role of purpose among emerging adults. In L. M. Padilla-Walker & L. J. Nelson (Eds.) Flourishing in emerging adulthood: Positive development during the third decade of life. Oxford University Press. 
Journal article with doi Fink, J., & Hummel, M. (2015). With educational benefits for all: Campus inclusion through learning communities designed for underserved student populations. New Directions for Student Services2015(149), 29–40.
Journal article without doi Savage, T. (2007). Relationship between assault frequency and length of hospitalization in older patients with dementia: Determining the maximum benefit of inpatient treatment. Journal of Gerontological Nursing33(4), 13–20.
Webpage on a website with a group author Library of Congress.  (n.d.). Today in history- February 14. Retrieved from
Online image from the web Griffiths, L. (2018). Paul Pogba of France kisses the World Cup trophy following the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia Final between France and Croatia at Luzhniki Stadium on July 15, 2018 in Moscow, Russia [Photograph].  Retrieved from
Image from an ebook Cite the chapter from the ebook


Formatted Citations via USC Libraries Catalog

You can generate a citation for a book found in the USC Libraries Catalog by simply clicking on the quotation mark (") icon. Select between multiple style options.

Formatted Citations via E-Book Collections

In Access Medicine you can cite a book or chapter by clicking "Get Citation" in the menu bar below the book or chapter title.

In R2 Library you can cite a book or chapter by clicking "Tools" followed by "Export Citation" in the menu above the book or chapter title, and below the search box.

In Stat!Ref you can cite a book or chapter by clicking "Download Citations" from the menu bar above the book or chapter title.


Formatted Citations via Google Scholar

You can generate formatted citations via Google Scholar by clicking on the quotation marks (") icon below the citation. Please be sure to double check the citation information for accuracy.

Formatted Citations via PubMed

You can generate formatted citations via PubMed@USC by clicking on the "Cite" button to the right of the abstract. Please be sure to double check the citation information for accuracy.

Subject Guide

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Hannah Schilperoort
Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC
Wilson Dental Library
925 W. 34th Street, DEN 21
Los Angeles, CA 90089-0641