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Evidence-Based Dentistry

Resources to aid oral health providers in making clinical decisions

PICO

A well formed clinical question covers the following 4 areas identified by the acronym PICO.

  • Patient or population or problem
  • Intervention or exposure or prognostic factor
  • Comparison (not always included)
  • Outcome

Medical University of South Carolina Libraries. (2020). PICOTT. https://musc.libguides.com/ebd/PICOTT

Types of Clinical Questions

Medical University of South Carolina Libraries. (2020). PICOTT. https://musc.libguides.com/ebd/PICOTT

Study design methods for the different clinical questions 

Determine what kind of research and study design would best answer your clinical question. 

Examples:

  • Etiology / Harm: Randomized control trial, cohort, case-control, cross-sectional
  • Diagnosis: Comparison to a reference standard with reports of sensitivity/specificity
  • Therapy / Prevention: Randomized control trial, cohort, case-control, case series
  • Prognosis: Cohort, case-control, case series

UNC University Libraries. (2020). Question. https://guides.lib.unc.edu/evidence-based-dentistry/question

How to Phrase Your PICO

Medical University of South Carolina Libraries. (2020). PICOTT. https://musc.libguides.com/ebd/PICOTT