Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Writing 340: Arts and Humanities: Types of Evidence

Evidence typically used in various disciplines

Humanities: Literature, art, film, music, philosophy

Textual evidence such as passages of text or lines of a poem.

Details from an image, a film, or a work of art. Scholarly books and articles that interpret evidence.

Results of field research such as interviews, observations, or surveys. Scholarly articles that report findings from experiments.

Passages of a musical composition. Statistics from government agencies.

Critical essays that analyze original works.

Humanities/Social Sciences: History

Primary sources: photographs, letters, maps, chronicles, government documents.

Scholarly interpretations of primary sources: books and articles

Social Sciences: Sociology, political science, psychology, anthropology


Results of field research such as interviews, observations, or surveys.

Data from original experiments.

Statistics (gathered by governmental and other agencies).

Scholarly interpretations of data, statistics experiments and field research results (books and articles).



Sciences: physics, chemistry, biology

Data from original experiments

Interpretations of data harvested in experiments presented in papers, articles, books.