Business: Citing Business Sources

Citation Help

In addition to books and journals, business information can come from unique sources such as databases, government documents/websites, investment banks' analyst reports, and more. The format of your citations will depend on your assigned style and instructions you have received from your professor. Common citation styles used in Business are APA and MLA. 

This guide includes links to valuable references for creating citations and examples of commonly cited Business sources.

Citing Business Databases



Databases with original, proprietary content

Provide the name of the database or archive when it publishes original, proprietary works available only in that database or archive (e.g., UpToDate or the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews). Readers must retrieve the cited work from that exact database or archive, so include information about the database or archive in the reference list entry.

References for works from proprietary databases are similar to journal article references. The name of the database or archive is written in italic title case in the source element, the same as a periodical title, and followed by a period. After the database or archive information, also provide the DOI or URL of the work. If the URL is session-specific (meaning it will not resolve for readers), provide the URL of the database home page or login page instead.

The following example shows how to create a reference list entry for an article from the UpToDate database:

Citing Government Websites



This page contains a reference example for a report by a government agency.

  • The specific agency responsible for the report appears as the author. The names of parent agencies not present in the group author name appear in the source element as the publisher. This creates concise in-text citations and complete reference list entries.