Business *: Citing Business Databases

A guide to business research at USC.

Business database citations in APA style (original source:,

APA Examples

Provide the actual url link or doi when providing: Retrieved from

General format is:

Who. (When) What (Use sentence case) Publisher Name, Where (DOE or URL): See example:

Nelson, G., & Goon, X. J. (2019). Industry Surveys: Global automobile manufacturers.  CFRA. Retrieved from

ABI/INFORM Complete (Dateline, Global, and Trade & Industry)

Surchi, M. (2011). The temporary store: A new marketing tool for fashion brands. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 15(2), 257-270. doi:

Advertising Redbooks - now known as Winmo

Winmo. (2006). Energizer Holdings, Inc. profile. Retrieved from Advertising Red Books database


Bloomberg L.P. (2008). Return on capital for Hewlett Packard 12/31/90 to 09/30/08. Retrieved from Bloomberg database.

Business Insights: Global

Gale Group. (2012). Other Snack Food Manufacturing [industry profile]. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from Business Insights: Essentials database.

Gale Group. (2012). Hilton Worldwide. [company profile]. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from Business Insights: Essentials database.

" Launches as the Premier Destination for High Quality Twitter Headers." (2012, October 1). PRWeb Newswire. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from Business Insights: Essentials database.

EBSCO Business Source Complete

Laird, K. (2008). Missing: Statue of Liberty. Marketing Magazine, 113(8), 8. 

Datamonitor. (2011). Hilton Worldwide [company profile]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

Datamonitor. (2011). Hotels & Motels [industry profile]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

Conference Board

The Conference Board Inc. (2010). Top executive compensation in 2008. Retrieved from The Conference Board Research Online Collection database.

Liberman, V. (2009). Clicking with customers. The Conference Board Review, May/June 2009. Retrieved from The Conference Board  Research Online Collection database.


Kurov, A. (2010). Investor sentiment and the stock market's reaction to monetary policy. Journal of Banking and Finance, 34(1), 139-49. Retrieved from EconLit database.

Economist Intelligence Unit

The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited. (2001, November). Pakistan country report. Retrieved from Economist Intelligence Unit database.


Peart, M., Bendtsen, C. (2015). US Time Spent With Media: eMarketer's Updated Estimates for Fall 2015. Report. Retrieved from eMarketer database.


EMIS. (2013, July 20). Hotel listings. China Daily. Retrieved from EMIS Professional database.

eStatement Studies

The Risk Management Association (2010). 326160 - Plastics bottle manufacturing 2009/2010. Retrieved from eStatement Studies database.

Europa World

Routledge. (2015). Instituto Nacional de Administracion Publica (INAP) (Guatemala). Retrieved from Europa World online.


Hudson, K. (2006, September 28). Wal-Mart to trim options for health coverage. The Wall Street Journal, p. B2. Retrieved from Factiva database.

Frost & Sullivan

Mendelson, J. (2015). Electro-Optical/Infrared Systems - Technology Trends Impacting Military and Aerospace Sectors (TechVision). Technical Insights Reports. Retrieved from Frost & Sullivan database.

Gale Virtual Reference Library

Note: Cite the actual book or encyclopedia, formatted like a print citation for that type of work.


Lopez, J. & Raskino, M. (2006). What information will executives need in 2012? Retrieved from Gartner database.

Baker, V. L., Weiner A., McGuire, M., Koslowski, T., Brancheau, J., & Reali, P. A., et al. (2006). Hype cycle for consumer technologies, 2006. Retrieved from Gartner database.

Kitagawa, M. & Gammage, B. (2006). Magic quadrant for global enterprise notebook PCs, 2H06. Retrieved from Gartner database.

General BusinessFile ASAP

Kiviat, B. (2006, December 18). The big gulp at Starbucks. Time, 168, 124. Retrieved from General BusinessFile ASAP database.

Garcia, B. (2006, December 14). Starbucks Coffee launches 'Black Apron Exclusives'. Kuwait Times, pNA. Retrieved from General BusinessFile ASAP database.


Obama, B. (2015). Administration of Barack Obama, 2015 Notice - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran. Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents, 1. Retrieved from HeinOnLine database.


Le, Thi. (2019). Casino hotels in the US. IBISWorld. Retrieved from

International Financial Statistics Online

International Monetary Fund. (2010, January). Australia country tables. Retrieved January 18, 2009, from International Financial Statistics Online database.

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Data Archive (available via USC Libraries)

Note: instructions for citing data from this database is available from the database at


Goodman, J. P., & Sandberg, W. R.. (1981). A Contingency Approach to Labor Relations Strategies. The Academy of Management Review6(1), 145–154. Retrieved from

LexisNexis Academic now known as Nexis Uni

Woodyard, C. (2006, December 27). Car-stereo units put video iPods on the road. USA Today, p. 3B. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database.
Hoover's. (2007, January 2). Johnson & Johnson. Hoover's Company Records - In-depth Records. Retrieved March 14, 2007, from LexisNexis Academic database.

Market Share Reporter

Gale. (2010). Consumer electronics sales, 2008. Market Share Reporter. Retrieved from Gale Directory Library database.

Mergent Horizon

Mergent. (2009). Ford Motor Co. suppliers. Retrieved January 9, 2009, from Mergent Horizon database.

Mergent. (2009). Beverages: overview. Retrieved March 11, 2009, from Mergent Horizon database.

Mergent Intellect

Mergent. (2016). Stryker Corporation: Financial details - income statement. Retrieved October 25, 2016 from Mergent Intellect database.

Mergent Online

Mergent. (2005). Marathon Oil Corp. company details report. Retrieved February 14, 2006, from Mergent Online database.

Mintel Academic Reports

Mintel. (2006). Hair styling products - US - May 2006. Retrieved from Mintel Academic Reports database.

Passport (formerly PassportGMID)

Euromonitor International. (2016). Car rental in the United Kingdom. Retrieved from Passport GMID database.


Ptichbook (2015, February, 17) Samsonite. Investors Profile. Retrieved from Pitchbook database.


Fcc Broadband Deployment Data. Availability of residential fiber to the end user (fiber optic) internet access in 2015. PolicyMap. <> 29 September 2016.

Political Risk Yearbook

PRS Group, Inc. (2007). Algeria. In Political risk yearbook. Retrieved January 30, 2008, from


PrivCo. (2016). LivingSocial, Inc.. Retrieved from PrivCo database.

ProQuest Historical Annual Reports

Ford Motor Company Annual Report -- 1912. (1912). America's Corporate Foundation. Retrieved January 8, 2007, from ProQuest Historical Annual Reports database.

ProQuest Statistical Abstract of the U.S.

Bureau of Census (2016). Resident Population Projections And Components Of Change: 2015 To 2060 [As Of July 1] ProQuest Statistical Abstract of the U.S. 2016 Online Edition. Retrieved from ProQuest Statistical Abstract of the U.S. database.

ProQuest Statistical Insight

Government Accountability Office. (2012). Medicare: High-expenditure part b drugs. (GAO Publication No. 13-46R). Retrieved from ProQuest Statistical Insight database.


Al Saifi, S. A. (2015). Positioning organisational culture in knowledge management research. Journal of Knowledge Management, 19(2), 164-189. Retrieved from PsycInfo database.


infoUSA, Inc. (2007). Hershey Company. Retrieved November 4, 2007, from ReferenceUSA database.

RIA Checkpoint

RIA. (2009). 2010 RIA federal tax handbook. Retrieved from RIA Checkpoint database.

Murthy, V. (2008, January/February). Why paying severance has become like walking a tax law minefield. Journal of Corporate Taxation, 2008, 40-44. Retrieved from RIA Checkpoint database.

Roper Center for Public Opinion Research

Social Surveys (Gallup Poll) Limited. (1991). British Gallup Poll: CQ 121B, May, 1991 [dataset]. GBSSLT91-CQ121B. Social Surveys (Gallup Poll) Limited [producer]. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, RoperExpress [distributor]. Retrieved from Roper Center for Public Opinion Research database.

Sage Business Cases

Chaston, I., (2009). A flawed succession. In SAGE Business Cases. 2016. 10.4135/9781473938700


SimplyAnalytics (2017). EASI/MRI Consumer Expenditure Data 2016. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.

SimplyAnalytics (2017). Census 2016 Current Estimates Data. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.

SimplyAnalytics (2017). Map with 2016 Consumer Expenditure Data. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyMap database.

Note: If you are not sure of the name and date of the variable you are using, you can View Metadata.

Sports Business Research Network

Sports Business Research Network. (2007). Statistics retrieved August 24, 2007, from Sports Business Research Network (SBRnet) database.

Sports Business Research Network. (2004, June 21). Fifth bowl game for college football. SportsPipe. Retrieved from Sports Business Research Network (SBRnet) database.


Better Homes and Gardens Magazine Profile. (2014). Consumer Magazine Media, Retrieved from SRDS Media Planning Platform database.


Nielsen Scarborough. (n.d.) Watching sports: Number of people who watched a National Hockey League event on a cable TV within the last 12 months in the United States (USA) from spring 2008 to spring 2015 (in millions). In Statista - The Statistics Portal. Retrieved October 7, 2016, from

Thomson One

Google, Inc. (2009, December 31). Annual report. Retrieved from Thomson One database.

Milunovich, S. & Christiansen, P. (2015, May 1). Apple Inc.: Evidence lab Apple Watch monitor continues to show tepid interest; reducing watch estimates. UBS Global Research. Retrieved from Thomson One database.

Thomson One - Deals

Thomson Reuters. (2010). Company Overview: AT&T Inc. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from Thomson One database.

USA Trade Online

U.S. Census Bureau: Economic Indicators Division. (2016). Country by commodity - exports: Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc. U.S. Import and Export Merchandise trade statistics. Retrieved from USA Trade Online database.

Vault Career Insider

Rishi, K. (n.d.). A day in the life: Associate, corporate strategy. Retrieved from Vault Career Insider database.

Web of Science (via USC Libraries)

Bishop, S. & Waring, J. (2016). Becoming hybrid: The negotiated order on the front line of public private partnerships. Human Relations, 69(10), 1937-1958. 10.1177/0018726716630389

Wharton Research Data Services (WRDS)


Compustat Industrial [Annual Data]. (Years). Available: Standard & Poor's/Compustat [access date]. Retrieved from Wharton Research Data Services.


CRSP Stocks. (Years). Available: Center for Research in Security Prices. Graduate School of Business. University of Chicago [access date]. Retrieved from Wharton Research Data Services.

World Bank E-Library

Klapper, L.F. & Parker, S.C. (2010). Gender and the business environment for new firm creation. The World Bank Research Observer  26(2). Retrieved from World Bank E-Library.

World Bank Databank

The World Bank, World Development Indicators. (2012). GNI per capita, Atlas method [data file]. Retrieved from http://data.worldbank,org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD


Acknowledgement: This guide was created by Laura M. Walesby, Michigan State University (MSU) Gast Business Library: